Next Article in Journal
The Challenge of Integrating OHS into Industrial Project Risk Management: Proposal of a Methodological Approach to Guide Future Research (Case of Mining Projects in Quebec, Canada)
Previous Article in Journal
Testing of Ore Comminution Behavior in the Geometallurgical Context—A Review
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Minerals 2015, 5(2), 298-313; doi:10.3390/min5020298

Demonstration Plant Equipment Design and Scale-Up from Pilot Plant of a Leaching and Solvent Extraction Process

School of Engineering, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Seville, Camino de los Descubrimientos, Seville 41092, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna H. Kaksonen
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 13 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 28 May 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [924 KB, uploaded 28 May 2015]   |  


Germanium recovery from coal fly ash by hydrometallurgical procedures was studied at the pilot scale (5 kg of fly ash/h). Results were used to design the equipment of a demonstration-sized plant (200 kg of fly ash/h). The process is based on hydrometallurgical operations: firstly a germanium extraction from fly ash by leaching and a consequent Ge separation from the other elements present in the solution by solvent extraction procedures. Based on the experimental results, mass balances and McCabe-Thiele diagrams were applied to determine the number of steps of the solvent extraction stage. Different arrangements have been studied and a countercurrent process with three steps in extraction and six steps in elution was defined. A residence time of 5 min was fixed in both the extraction and elution stages. Volumetric ratios in extraction and stripping were: aqueous phase/organic phase = 5 and organic phase/stripping phase = 5, so a concentration factor of 25 is achieved. Mixers and decanters were completely defined. The maximum extracted and eluted germanium was estimated and a global efficiency of 94% was achieved. The cost-effectiveness of the equipment was estimated using the Lang factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: germanium; fly ash; pilot plant; design; scale up; hydrometallurgy germanium; fly ash; pilot plant; design; scale up; hydrometallurgy

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Arroyo, F.; Fernández-Pereira, C.; Bermejo, P. Demonstration Plant Equipment Design and Scale-Up from Pilot Plant of a Leaching and Solvent Extraction Process. Minerals 2015, 5, 298-313.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top