Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Characterizing Frothers through Critical Coalescence Concentration (CCC)95-Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB) Relationship
Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 Univeristy Street, Wong Building, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2, Canada
NesseTech Consulting Services Inc., 17-35 Sculler’s Way, St., Catharines, ON L2N 7S9, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 June 2012; in revised form: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Abstract: Frothers are surfactants commonly used to reduce bubble size in mineral flotation. This paper describes a methodology to characterize frothers by relating impact on bubble size reduction represented by CCC (critical coalescence concentration) to frother structure represented by HLB (hydrophile-lipophile balance). Thirty-six surfactants were tested from three frother families: Aliphatic Alcohols, Polypropylene Glycol Alkyl Ethers and Polypropylene Glycols, covering a range in alkyl groups (represented by n, the number of carbon atoms) and number of Propylene Oxide groups (represented by m). The Sauter mean size (D32) was derived from bubble size distribution measured in a 0.8 m3 mechanical flotation cell. The D32 vs. concentration data were fitted to a 3-parameter model to determine CCC95, the concentration giving 95% reduction in bubble size compared to water only. It was shown that each family exhibits a unique CCC95-HLB relationship dependent on n and m. Empirical models were developed to predict CCC95 either from HLB or directly from n and m. Commercial frothers of known family were shown to fit the relationships. Use of the model to predict D32 is illustrated.
Keywords: flotation; frothers; bubbles; coalescence; CCC; HLB
Article StatisticsClick here to load and display the download statistics.
Notes: Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Zhang, W.; Nesset, J.E.; Rao, R.; Finch, J.A. Characterizing Frothers through Critical Coalescence Concentration (CCC)95-Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB) Relationship. Minerals 2012, 2, 208-227.
Zhang W, Nesset JE, Rao R, Finch JA. Characterizing Frothers through Critical Coalescence Concentration (CCC)95-Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB) Relationship. Minerals. 2012; 2(3):208-227.
Zhang, Wei; Nesset, Jan E.; Rao, Ramachandra; Finch, James A. 2012. "Characterizing Frothers through Critical Coalescence Concentration (CCC)95-Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB) Relationship." Minerals 2, no. 3: 208-227.