Symmetry 2012, 4(1), 39-115; doi:10.3390/sym4010039

Knots on a Torus: A Model of the Elementary Particles

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Received: 16 November 2011; in revised form: 27 December 2011 / Accepted: 16 January 2012 / Published: 9 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Beauty of Knots)
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Abstract: Two knots; just two rudimentary knots, the unknot and the trefoil. That’s all we need to build a model of the elementary particles of physics, one with fermions and bosons, hadrons and leptons, interactions weak and strong and the attributes of spin, isospin, mass, charge, CPT invariance and more. There are no quarks to provide fractional charge, no gluons to sequester them within nucleons and no “colors” to avoid violating Pauli’s principle. Nor do we require the importation of an enigmatic Higgs boson to confer mass upon the particles of our world. All the requisite attributes emerge simply (and relativistically invariant) as a result of particle conformation and occupation in and of spacetime itself, a spacetime endowed with the imprimature of general relativity. Also emerging are some novel tools for systemizing the particle taxonomy as governed by the gauge group SU(2) and the details of particle degeneracy as well as connections to Hopf algebra, Dirac theory, string theory, topological quantum field theory and dark matter. One exception: it is found necessary to invoke the munificent geometry of the icosahedron in order to provide, as per the group “flavor” SU(3), a scaffold upon which to organize the well-known three generations—no more, no less—of the particle family tree.
Keywords: torus knots; Moebius strips: fiber bundles; topological quantization; particle attributes; taxonomy; interactions

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MDPI and ACS Style

Avrin, J.S. Knots on a Torus: A Model of the Elementary Particles. Symmetry 2012, 4, 39-115.

AMA Style

Avrin JS. Knots on a Torus: A Model of the Elementary Particles. Symmetry. 2012; 4(1):39-115.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Avrin, Jack S. 2012. "Knots on a Torus: A Model of the Elementary Particles." Symmetry 4, no. 1: 39-115.

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