Next Article in Journal
Polyanionic Hexagons: X6n(X = Si, Ge)
Previous Article in Journal
Complex Networks and Symmetry I: A Review
Symmetry 2010, 2(3), 1710-1744; doi:10.3390/sym2031710

Complex Networks and Symmetry II: Reciprocity and Evolution of World Trade

1,* , 2
1 Center for the Study of Complex Systems, University of Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena, Italy 2 LEM, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, 56127 Pisa, Italy 3 Department of Chemistry, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 August 2010 / Revised: 17 September 2010 / Accepted: 20 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Download PDF [727 KB, uploaded 27 September 2010]


We exploit the symmetry concepts developed in the companion review of this article to introduce a stochastic version of link reversal symmetry, which leads to an improved understanding of the reciprocity of directed networks. We apply our formalism to the international trade network and show that a strong embedding in economic space determines particular symmetries of the network, while the observed evolution of reciprocity is consistent with a symmetry breaking taking place in production space. Our results show that networks can be strongly affected by symmetry-breaking phenomena occurring in embedding spaces, and that stochastic network symmetries can successfully suggest, or rule out, possible underlying mechanisms.
Keywords: complexity; networks; symmetry breaking; World Trade Web complexity; networks; symmetry breaking; World Trade Web
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Ruzzenenti, F.; Garlaschelli, D.; Basosi, R. Complex Networks and Symmetry II: Reciprocity and Evolution of World Trade. Symmetry 2010, 2, 1710-1744.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert