Symmetry 2010, 2(3), 1710-1744; doi:10.3390/sym2031710
Article

Complex Networks and Symmetry II: Reciprocity and Evolution of World Trade

1,* email, 2email and 3email
Received: 25 August 2010; in revised form: 17 September 2010 / Accepted: 20 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: We exploit the symmetry concepts developed in the companion review of this article to introduce a stochastic version of link reversal symmetry, which leads to an improved understanding of the reciprocity of directed networks. We apply our formalism to the international trade network and show that a strong embedding in economic space determines particular symmetries of the network, while the observed evolution of reciprocity is consistent with a symmetry breaking taking place in production space. Our results show that networks can be strongly affected by symmetry-breaking phenomena occurring in embedding spaces, and that stochastic network symmetries can successfully suggest, or rule out, possible underlying mechanisms.
Keywords: complexity; networks; symmetry breaking; World Trade Web
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruzzenenti, F.; Garlaschelli, D.; Basosi, R. Complex Networks and Symmetry II: Reciprocity and Evolution of World Trade. Symmetry 2010, 2, 1710-1744.

AMA Style

Ruzzenenti F, Garlaschelli D, Basosi R. Complex Networks and Symmetry II: Reciprocity and Evolution of World Trade. Symmetry. 2010; 2(3):1710-1744.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego; Basosi, Riccardo. 2010. "Complex Networks and Symmetry II: Reciprocity and Evolution of World Trade." Symmetry 2, no. 3: 1710-1744.

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