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Antibodies 2017, 6(3), 9; doi:10.3390/antib6030009

Potential Roles of Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Generating Platelet-C4d in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Lupus Center of Excellence, Autoimmunity Institute, Allegheny Health Network Research Institute, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh 15212, PA, USA
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Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome)
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Abstract

Premature, accelerated onset of atherothrombotic disease is prevalent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Most, if not all, atherothrombotic diseases are likely to involve platelets and complement. Previously, we discovered that platelets bearing complement activation product C4d (P-C4d) are present in SLE patients, and are significantly associated with antiphospholipid (aPL) antibody positivity and stroke in SLE patients. The goal of the present study was to further elucidate the role of aPL and other platelet-reactive autoantibodies in the generation of P-C4d. To determine the association between P-C4d and aPL antibodies, the serum levels of aPL antibodies and P-C4d of 180 SLE patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassays and flow cytometry, respectively. To investigate the role of aPL antibodies, and possibly other autoantibodies as well, in mediating the generation of P-C4d, in vitro 2-step P-C4d induction experiments were performed. The results showed that the presence and levels of aPL antibodies in the serum were specifically elevated in SLE patients with positive P-C4d. The plasma and immunoglobulins purified from SLE patients who were positive for P-C4d and aPL were capable of inducing C4d deposition on normal platelets in vitro. The capacity of SLE plasma in inducing P-C4d appeared to correlate proportionately to the serum aPL levels. Collectively, the results demonstrate that both aPL and other platelet-reactive autoantibodies may participate in mediating the generation of P-C4d in SLE patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiphospholipid antibodies; anti-cardiolipin antibodies; anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies; complement; platelet; systemic lupus erythematosus; cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs) antiphospholipid antibodies; anti-cardiolipin antibodies; anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies; complement; platelet; systemic lupus erythematosus; cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, C.-C.; Schofield, T.; Tang, A.; Manzi, S.; Ahearn, J.M. Potential Roles of Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Generating Platelet-C4d in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Antibodies 2017, 6, 9.

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