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Antibodies 2016, 5(2), 12; doi:10.3390/antib5020012

β2GP1, Anti-β2GP1 Antibodies and Platelets: Key Players in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

1
School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1322, Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia
2
Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 23, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ricard Cervera
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [885 KB, uploaded 6 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1 (anti-β2GP1) antibodies are commonly found in patients with autoimmune diseases such as the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Their presence is highly associated with increased risk of vascular thrombosis and/or recurrent pregnancy-related complications. Although they are a subtype of anti-phospholipid (APL) antibody, anti-β2GP1 antibodies form complexes with β2GP1 before binding to different receptors associated with anionic phospholipids on structures such as platelets and endothelial cells. β2GP1 consists of five short consensus repeat termed “sushi” domains. It has three interchangeable conformations with a cryptic epitope at domain 1 within the molecule. Anti-β2GP1 antibodies against this cryptic epitope are referred to as ‘type A’ antibodies, and have been suggested to be more strongly associated with both vascular and obstetric complications. In contrast, ‘type B’ antibodies, directed against other domains of β2GP1, are more likely to be benign antibodies found in asymptomatic patients and healthy individuals. Although the interactions between anti-β2GP1 antibodies, β2GP1, and platelets have been investigated, the actual targeted metabolic pathway(s) and/or receptor(s) involved remain to be clearly elucidated. This review will discuss the current understanding of the interaction between anti-β2GP1 antibodies and β2GP1, with platelet receptors and associated signalling pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies; beta 2 glycoprotein 1; platelet; antiphospholipid antibody; antiphospholipid syndrome; systemic lupus erythematosus anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies; beta 2 glycoprotein 1; platelet; antiphospholipid antibody; antiphospholipid syndrome; systemic lupus erythematosus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, Y.C.; Ahuja, K.D.K.; Körner, H.; Adams, M.J. β2GP1, Anti-β2GP1 Antibodies and Platelets: Key Players in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome. Antibodies 2016, 5, 12.

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