What Makes A Bacterial Oral Vaccine a Strong Inducer of High-Affinity IgA Responses?
AbstractOral vaccination against bacterial pathogens that infect via the gastrointestinal tract is highly desirable for both economic reasons and the supposed benefits of local mucosal immunity. However, the majority of oral vaccine trials in humans result in failure. Here we try to assimilate our current knowledge to generate a model to improve vaccine development strategies. A model previously postulated describes the “immunogenicity” of intestinal bacterial species as a sum of the ability of the species to compete with the microbiota, the “pathogenicity index,” and the uniqueness of the species. While this model quite neatly explains the difficulties in generating appropriately attenuated live vaccine strains, it cannot explain the success of fully apathogenic or inactivated high-dose vaccines. We therefore propose a step away from focusing on bacterial traits, and towards the most basic requirements of mucosal vaccines: i.e., the delivery of antigen to the gut-associated lymphoid tissues and the ability of that antigen to induce germinal center formation. While the models seem trivial, both suggest that vaccination strategies permitting uncoupling of disease-causing phenomena from immune stimulation will have a much broader safety margin in a diverse human population. Our modified model further suggests the benefits of delivering antigen in the form of high-dose fully apathogenic or sterile particles, combined with relevant adjuvants. View Full-Text
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Moor, K.; Slack, E. What Makes A Bacterial Oral Vaccine a Strong Inducer of High-Affinity IgA Responses? Antibodies 2015, 4, 295-313.
Moor K, Slack E. What Makes A Bacterial Oral Vaccine a Strong Inducer of High-Affinity IgA Responses? Antibodies. 2015; 4(4):295-313.Chicago/Turabian Style
Moor, Kathrin; Slack, Emma. 2015. "What Makes A Bacterial Oral Vaccine a Strong Inducer of High-Affinity IgA Responses?" Antibodies 4, no. 4: 295-313.