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Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP)
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2AZ, UK
PhotoBiotics Ltd, Montague House, Chancery Lane, Thrapston, Northamptonshire, NN14 4LN, UK
National Medical Laser Centre, Charles Bell House, 67-73 Riding House Street, London, W1W 7EJ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2013; in revised form: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 4 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically-approved but rather under-exploited treatment modality for cancer and pre-cancerous superficial lesions. It utilises a cold laser or LED to activate a photochemical reaction between a light activated drug (photosensitiser-drug) and oxygen to generate cytotoxic oxygen species. These free radical species damage cellular components leading to cell death. Despite its benefits, the complexity, limited potency and side effects of PDT have led to poor general usage. However, the research area is very active with an increasing understanding of PDT-related cell biology, photophysics and significant progress in molecular targeting of disease. Monoclonal antibody therapy is maturing and the next wave of antibody therapies includes antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), which promise to be more potent and curable. These developments could lift antibody-directed phototherapy (ADP) to success. ADP promises to increase specificity and potency and improve drug pharmacokinetics, thus delivering better PDT drugs whilst retaining its other benefits. Whole antibody conjugates with first generation ADP-drugs displayed problems with aggregation, poor pharmacokinetics and loss of immuno-reactivity. However, these early ADP-drugs still showed improved selectivity and potency. Improved PS-drug chemistry and a variety of conjugation strategies have led to improved ADP-drugs with retained antibody and PS-drug function. More recently, recombinant antibody fragments have been used to deliver ADP-drugs with superior drug loading, more favourable pharmacokinetics, enhanced potency and target cell selectivity. These improvements offer a promise of better quality PDT drugs.
Keywords: photodynamic; therapy; antibody targeted; photosensitiser-drug; phototherapy
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Pye, H.; Stamati, I.; Yahioglu, G.; Butt, M.A.; Deonarain, M. Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP). Antibodies 2013, 2, 270-305.
Pye H, Stamati I, Yahioglu G, Butt MA, Deonarain M. Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP). Antibodies. 2013; 2(2):270-305.
Pye, Hayley; Stamati, Ioanna; Yahioglu, Gokhan; Butt, M. A.; Deonarain, Mahendra. 2013. "Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP)." Antibodies 2, no. 2: 270-305.