Antibodies 2013, 2(2), 270-305; doi:10.3390/antib2020270
Review

Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP)

Received: 25 February 2013; in revised form: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 4 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody-Drug Conjugates)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically-approved but rather under-exploited treatment modality for cancer and pre-cancerous superficial lesions. It utilises a cold laser or LED to activate a photochemical reaction between a light activated drug (photosensitiser-drug) and oxygen to generate cytotoxic oxygen species. These free radical species damage cellular components leading to cell death. Despite its benefits, the complexity, limited potency and side effects of PDT have led to poor general usage. However, the research area is very active with an increasing understanding of PDT-related cell biology, photophysics and significant progress in molecular targeting of disease. Monoclonal antibody therapy is maturing and the next wave of antibody therapies includes antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), which promise to be more potent and curable. These developments could lift antibody-directed phototherapy (ADP) to success. ADP promises to increase specificity and potency and improve drug pharmacokinetics, thus delivering better PDT drugs whilst retaining its other benefits. Whole antibody conjugates with first generation ADP-drugs displayed problems with aggregation, poor pharmacokinetics and loss of immuno-reactivity. However, these early ADP-drugs still showed improved selectivity and potency. Improved PS-drug chemistry and a variety of conjugation strategies have led to improved ADP-drugs with retained antibody and PS-drug function. More recently, recombinant antibody fragments have been used to deliver ADP-drugs with superior drug loading, more favourable pharmacokinetics, enhanced potency and target cell selectivity. These improvements offer a promise of better quality PDT drugs.
Keywords: photodynamic; therapy; antibody targeted; photosensitiser-drug; phototherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pye, H.; Stamati, I.; Yahioglu, G.; Butt, M.A.; Deonarain, M. Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP). Antibodies 2013, 2, 270-305.

AMA Style

Pye H, Stamati I, Yahioglu G, Butt MA, Deonarain M. Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP). Antibodies. 2013; 2(2):270-305.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pye, Hayley; Stamati, Ioanna; Yahioglu, Gokhan; Butt, M. A.; Deonarain, Mahendra. 2013. "Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP)." Antibodies 2, no. 2: 270-305.

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