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Land 2015, 4(3), 888-913; doi:10.3390/land4030888

Disentangling Values in the Interrelations between Cultural Ecosystem Services and Landscape Conservation—A Case Study of the Ifugao Rice Terraces in the Philippines

1
Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
2
Department of Community Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environment Research, Barangay Tam-an, Banaue, Ifugao, Philippines
3
Department of Community Ecology, UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environment Research, Theodor Lieser Str. 4, 06120 Halle/Saale, Germany
4
Div, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research, Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Benjamin Burkhard and Stefan Hotes
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agro(Eco)System Services—Supply and Demand from Fields to Society)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1903 KB, uploaded 23 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

In the past few years, there has been a growing amount of research on economic quantifications and valuations of ecosystem services (ES) in agricultural systems. However, little attention has been given to cultural ESs (CES) in general and their link to the landscape in particular. This paper tries to tackle this gap with a case study on the Ifugao Rice Terraces of the Philippines. The study aims to understand the interrelations between the different CESs and their relationships with the landscape. Besides contributing to knowledge about the degradation of the rice terraces, this study was conducted in order to discuss at a theoretical level how CESs and their relationship with the landscape must be addressed in ES management and policy decisions. The methodological approach includes a combination of semi-structured interviews (n = 60) and a perception survey (n = 66). The results reveal that CESs, apart from being interrelated, are also responsible for and affected by the degradation of the rice terraces, which is why they are important factors to consider in ecosystem conservation. This paper finally provides policy recommendations for the empirical case and demonstrates the importance of connecting CES analysis with landscape studies looking at agricultural systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: cultural ecosystem services; landscape; agriculture; Ifugao rice terraces; interrelations; tradeoffs; Philippines cultural ecosystem services; landscape; agriculture; Ifugao rice terraces; interrelations; tradeoffs; Philippines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tilliger, B.; Rodríguez-Labajos, B.; Bustamante, J.V.; Settele, J. Disentangling Values in the Interrelations between Cultural Ecosystem Services and Landscape Conservation—A Case Study of the Ifugao Rice Terraces in the Philippines. Land 2015, 4, 888-913.

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