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Land 2014, 3(3), 739-769; doi:10.3390/land3030739
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Ecologies of Scale: Multifunctionality Connects Conservation and Agriculture across Fields, Farms, and Landscapes

Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Perspectives on Environmental Conservation)
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Abstract

Agroecology and landscape ecology are two land-use sciences based on ecological principles, but have historically focused on fine and broad spatial scales, respectively. As global demand for food strains current resources and threatens biodiversity conservation, concepts such as multifunctional landscapes and ecologically-analogous agroecosystems integrate ecological concepts across multiple spatial scales. This paper reviews ecological principles behind several concepts crucial to the reconciliation of food production and biodiversity conservation, including relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions such as productivity and stability; insect pest and pollinator management; integrated crop and livestock systems; countryside biogeography and heterogeneity-based rangeland management. Ecological principles are integrated across three spatial scales: fields, farms, and landscapes.
Keywords: agroecology; biodiversity conservation; dynamic cropping systems; integrated crop-livestock systems; landscape ecology; multifunctional landscapes; sustainable agriculture; sustainable landscape design agroecology; biodiversity conservation; dynamic cropping systems; integrated crop-livestock systems; landscape ecology; multifunctional landscapes; sustainable agriculture; sustainable landscape design
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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McGranahan, D.A. Ecologies of Scale: Multifunctionality Connects Conservation and Agriculture across Fields, Farms, and Landscapes. Land 2014, 3, 739-769.

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