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Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080298

Chemical Composition and Sources of Marine Aerosol over the Western North Pacific Ocean in Winter

1
Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of the Causes and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
2
School of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
3
College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Aerosols)
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Abstract

Atmospheric deposition of long-range transported continental substances from natural and anthropogenic sources affects biogeochemical processes in marine systems. Emissions of sea spray contribute aerosol particles to the marine atmosphere. Despite the importance of continental dispersion and atmospheric processes involving aerosol particles within remote marine atmosphere, knowledge of the sources of various water-soluble ions is limited because of insufficient observations. Concentrations of Total suspended particulates (TSPs) and major inorganic ions (Cl, Na+, SO42−, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, NO3, NH4+), as well as organic nitrogen (ON-N) values, were measured in marine aerosol collected over the western north Pacific (WNP) during a cruise from 3 December 2014 to 13 March 2015. Aerosol samples were analyzed to determine their chemical characteristics and a source apportionment for this region and the continental influence on the open ocean when air masses are from continent in winter. TSP mass concentrations ranged from 14.1 to 136.0 μg/m3 with an average of 44.8 ± 28.1 μg/m3. Concentrations of TSPs and major ions were higher near the coast (close to Qingdao and Xiamen) and lower over the open ocean. The total mass of inorganic ions and organic nitrogen accounted for 51.1% of the total TSP. Cl had highest concentrations among the major inorganic ions, followed by SO42−, NO3, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, and NH4+, respectively. However, Cl showed a deficit relative to Na+ in most samples, likely related to heterogeneous reactions within the marine atmosphere. Most SO42−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+ were from sea salt, while other major ions were from continental sources. The non-sea-salt (nss) fractions of Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ were derived from continental crust, while nss-SO42− and NO3 were derived from anthropogenic sources. ON had several sources, including reactions of NOx with volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic sources) or NH3 with gaseous hydrocarbons, as well as crustal and marine biogenic sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine aerosol; source apportionment; Western North Pacific Ocean; total suspended particulates; ionic composition marine aerosol; source apportionment; Western North Pacific Ocean; total suspended particulates; ionic composition
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Xiao, H.-W.; Xiao, H.-Y.; Shen, C.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Long, A.-M. Chemical Composition and Sources of Marine Aerosol over the Western North Pacific Ocean in Winter. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 298.

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