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Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070266

A Comparative Analysis of the Impacts of Two Types of El Niño on the Central and Eastern Pacific ITCZ

1
Institute of Meteorology and Oceanography, National University of Defense Technology, Nanjing 211101, China
2
Department of Military Oceanography, Dalian Naval Academy, Dalian 116018, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Abstract

The precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) were used to investigate the discrepancy of Centre and Eastern Pacific ITCZ (CEP-ITCZ) during two types of El Niño years. Two models of the heat source distribution during two types of El Niño events were constructed, and the causes of different CEP-ITCZ anomalies for two types of El Niño events were analyzed through the Gill model. The results show that the CEP-ITCZ precipitation is approximately 4.0° southward, and the intensity is enhanced by 3.6 mm/day during the mature period of Eastern Pacific El Niño (EP-El Niño), while during the mature period of Central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño), it is only 0.8° southward, and the intensity is enhanced by 3.2 mm/day. The meridional mode of the SST anomaly by means of EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) can indirectly affect the CEP-ITCZ by influencing the atmospheric Rossby wave response. In CP-El Niño years, the meridional mode of the SST anomaly is weak, and the atmospheric Rossby wave response enhances the northern and southern trade-wind zones at the same time. The anomaly of cross-equatorial flow is weak and the CEP-ITCZ moves southward a little. At the same time, the wind convergence zone is enhanced, and it is more conducive to the vertical transport of water vapor. In EP-El Niño years, the meridional mode of the SST anomaly is strong, and the atmospheric Rossby wave response strengthens the meridional wind on the northern side of the equator, leading to the southward shift of the CEP-ITCZ. At the same time, the wind convergence zone is weakened and widened, and to a certain extent, it suppresses the vertical transport increase of water vapor caused by the sea surface evaporation. View Full-Text
Keywords: two types of El Niño; Central and Eastern Pacific; Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ); Gill model two types of El Niño; Central and Eastern Pacific; Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ); Gill model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhu, J.; Liu, Y.; Xie, R.; Chang, H. A Comparative Analysis of the Impacts of Two Types of El Niño on the Central and Eastern Pacific ITCZ. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 266.

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