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Atmosphere 2018, 9(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040152

Atmospheric Emissions from Oil and Gas Extraction and Production in Greece

School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, 18 Aristotelous Street, 26335 Patras, Greece
Current address: 20 Kalogera Street, 11361 Athens, Greece.
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Received: 25 November 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Atmospheric Physics: Selected Papers from CEST2017)
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Abstract

This paper addresses the atmospheric emissions of CO2, SO2, H2S, NOx, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and gas extraction and production in the Gulf of Kavala. This is currently the only location of oil and gas production in Greece. Facilities are located both offshore (Kappa and Delta platforms) and onshore (Sigma plant), producing sweet gas, sour gas, and sour crude oil. This study presents the characteristics of atmospheric emissions, including emission measurements, emission inventories, and concentration measurements, from a central monitoring station and twelve total sulfation stations, the latter aiming to assess the effects of atmospheric emissions to air quality. During the development of the monitoring system, special attention was placed to sulfur compounds, since the existence of sour gas and sour crude oil was expected to lead to increased amounts of H2S and SO2. One of the main findings of the present study is that if the prevailing wind direction is considered (i.e., from N–NE), then the central monitoring station is not located downwind of the onshore and offshore facilities; therefore, its position should be re-examined. The emission inventories showed that flaring at the offshore facilities is the main source of SO2 emissions, while SO2 emissions and ambient concentrations were well below the relevant standards. Furthermore, CO2 emissions were lower by 67.73% as compared to 2008, when emissions reached a maximum. This was attributed to more energy demanding activities during that period, and mainly to the operation of turbines between 2007 and 2009. Since it is expected that the exploitation of hydrocarbons as well as oil and gas extraction and production will increase in the future in Greece, appropriate measures should be taken to ensure environmental protection, such as the use of up-to-date emission control technologies and a flare gas recovery system. View Full-Text
Keywords: oil and gas production; atmospheric emissions; gas flaring; H2S; SO2; CO2; NOx oil and gas production; atmospheric emissions; gas flaring; H2S; SO2; CO2; NOx
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Papailias, G.; Mavroidis, I. Atmospheric Emissions from Oil and Gas Extraction and Production in Greece. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 152.

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