Next Article in Journal
Effect of Spatial Variation of Convective Adjustment Time on the Madden–Julian Oscillation: A Theoretical Model Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Aerosol Optical Properties over China from RAMS-CMAQ Model Compared with CALIOP Observations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Surface Fluxes in the WRF Model: Case Study for Farmland in Rolling Terrain
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Atmosphere 2017, 8(10), 203; doi:10.3390/atmos8100203

The Peñalara Mountain Meteorological Network (1999–2014): Description, Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned

Centro de Investigación, Seguimiento y Evaluación Sierra de Guadarrama, Rascafría 28740, Spain
InterMET Sistemas y Redes S.L.U., Cea Bermudez 14B-6C, Madrid 28003, Spain
Facultad Ciencias Ambientales y Bioquímica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM),Avda Carlos III s/n, Toledo 45071, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [12066 KB, uploaded 18 October 2017]   |  


This work describes a mountain meteorological network that was in operation from 1999 to 2014 in a mountain range with elevations ranging from 1104 to 2428 m in Central Spain. Additionally, some technical details of the network are described, as well as variables measured and some meta information presented, which is expected to be useful for future users of the observational database. A strong emphasis is made on showing the observational methods and protocols evolution, as it will help researchers to understand the sources of errors, data gaps and the final stage of the network. This paper summarizes mostly the common sources of errors when designing and operating a small network of this kind, so it can be useful for individual researchers and small size groups that undertake a similar task on their own. Strengths and weaknesses of some of the variables measured are discussed and some basic calculations are made in order to show the otential of the database and to anticipate future deeper climatological analyses over the area. Finally, the configuration of an automatic mountain meteorology station is suggested as a result of the lessons learned and the the common state of the art automatic measuring techniques View Full-Text
Keywords: mountains; observations; network; validation; uncertainties; climate; snow; extreme conditions mountains; observations; network; validation; uncertainties; climate; snow; extreme conditions

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Durán, L.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, I.; Sánchez, E. The Peñalara Mountain Meteorological Network (1999–2014): Description, Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 203.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top