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Atmosphere 2017, 8(1), 12; doi:10.3390/atmos8010012

Contemporary Temperature Fluctuation in Urban Areas of Pakistan

1
Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 9, Block 4, South Renmin Road, Chengdu 610041, China
2
Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Department of Economics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Mardan 23200, Pakistan
4
Department of Earth Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert W. Talbot
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract

Annual temperature data from thirty meteorological stations in Pakistan’s major urban areas were selected to investigate trends in annual average and maximum temperature during 1970–2009. A combination of parametric and non-parametric tests including linear regression, the Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope estimator was used for the analysis. Annual average and maximum temperature series showed an overall increasing trend for 90% of the stations and a decreasing trend for 10% of the stations in the study area. The highest significant increment of annual average temperature was observed at Gilgit, Hyderabad, Quetta and Lasbela stations at the rate of 0.49 °C per decade. The highest increment of annual maximum temperature was obtained at Chitral, Gilgit, Nawabshah and Quetta at the rate of 0.31 °C per decade. According to simple linear regression and the Mann-Kendall test, the annual average temperature showed a significant increasing trend for 43% of the stations (at a 0.001 level of significance) and 23% of the stations (at the 0.05 level). Annual maximum temperature showed a significant increasing trend for 26% of the stations (at the 0.001 level of significance) and 23% of the stations (at the 0.05 level). In general, the results showed increasing trends for the considered parameters, although annual average temperature showed a higher increasing rate than annual maximum temperature during the study period. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban areas; temperature trends; parametric and non-parametric tests; Pakistan urban areas; temperature trends; parametric and non-parametric tests; Pakistan
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Anjum, R.; He, X.; Tanoli, J.I.; Raza, S.T. Contemporary Temperature Fluctuation in Urban Areas of Pakistan. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 12.

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