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Atmosphere 2016, 7(4), 57; doi:10.3390/atmos7040057

Effect of Pollution Controls on Atmospheric PM2.5 Composition during Universiade in Shenzhen, China

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA
2
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Huairou Eco-Environmental Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101408, China
4
Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rebecca Sheesley
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Source Apportionment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3083 KB, uploaded 14 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

The 16th Universiade, an international multi-sport event, was hosted in Shenzhen, China from 12 to 23 August 2011. During this time, officials instituted the Pearl River Delta action plan in order to enhance the air quality of Shenzhen. To determine the effect of these controls, the current study examined the trace elements, water-soluble ions, and stable lead isotopic ratios in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected during the controlled (when the restrictions were in place) and uncontrolled periods. Fine particles (PM2.5) were collected at two sampling sites in Shenzhen: “LG”—a residential building in the Longgang District, with significant point sources around it and “PU”—Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School in the Nanshan District, with no significant point sources. Results from this study showed a significant increase in the concentrations of elements during the uncontrolled periods. For instance, samples at the LG site showed (controlled to uncontrolled periods) concentrations (in ng·m−3) of: Fe (152 to 290), As (3.65 to 8.38), Pb (9.52 to 70.8), and Zn (98.6 to 286). Similarly, samples at the PU site showed elemental concentrations (in ng·m−3) of: Fe (114 to 301), As (0.634 to 8.36), Pb (4.86 to 58.1), and Zn (29.5 to 259). Soluble Fe ranged from 7%–15% for the total measured Fe, indicating an urban source of Fe. Ambient PM2.5 collected at the PU site has an average 206Pb/204Pb ratio of 18.257 and 18.260 during controlled and uncontrolled periods, respectively. The LG site has an average 206Pb/204Pb ratio of 18.183 and 18.030 during controlled and uncontrolled periods, respectively. The 206Pb/204Pb ratios at the PU and the LG sites during the controlled and uncontrolled periods were similar, indicating a common Pb source. To characterize the sources of trace elements, principal component analysis was applied to the elements and ions. Although the relative importance of each component varied, the major sources for both sites were identified as residual oil combustion, secondary inorganic aerosols, sea spray, and combustion. The PM2.5 levels were severely decreased during the controlled period, but it is unclear if this was a result of the controls or change in meteorology. View Full-Text
Keywords: water-soluble ions; iron (Fe) speciation; enrichment factor (EF); lead (Pb) isotopes; ICP-MS water-soluble ions; iron (Fe) speciation; enrichment factor (EF); lead (Pb) isotopes; ICP-MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dewan, N.; Wang, Y.-Q.; Zhang, Y.-X.; Zhang, Y.; He, L.-Y.; Huang, X.-F.; Majestic, B.J. Effect of Pollution Controls on Atmospheric PM2.5 Composition during Universiade in Shenzhen, China. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 57.

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