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Atmosphere 2015, 6(3), 234-254; doi:10.3390/atmos6030234

Summertime Spatial Variations in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Components in Different Functional Areas of Xiamen, China

1,2,3
,
1,3,* , 2
,
2
and
4,*
1
Key Lab of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry of State Oceanic Administration, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, China
2
Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
3
College of Ocean and Earth Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
4
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Huiting Mao and Robert W. Talbot
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 6 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 February 2015 / Published: 27 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Climate)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1250 KB, uploaded 27 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Due to the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of urban areas in Chinese cities, air pollution exhibits well-defined spatial variations. Rapid urbanization in China has heightened the importance of understanding and characterizing atmospheric particulate matter (PM) concentrations and their spatiotemporal variations. To investigate the small-scale spatial variations in PM in Xiamen, total suspended particulate (TSP), PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 measurements were collected between August and September in 2012. Their average mass concentrations were 102.50 μg∙m−3, 82.79 μg∙m−3, 55.67 μg∙m−3 and 43.70 μg∙m−3, respectively. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were measured using thermal optical transmission. Based on the PM concentrations for all size categories, the following order for the different functional areas studied was identified: hospital > park > commercial area > residential area > industrial area. OC contributed approximately 5%–23% to the PM2.5 mass, whereas EC accounted for 0.8%–6.95%. Secondary organic carbon constituted most of the carbonaceous particles found in the park, commercial, industrial and residential areas, with the exception of hospitals. The high PM and EC concentrations in hospitals were primarily caused by vehicle emissions. Thus, the results suggest that long-term plans should be to limit the number of vehicles entering hospital campuses, construct large-capacity underground parking structures, and choose hospital locations far from major roads. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; organic carbon; elemental carbon; spatial variation; Xiamen; China particulate matter; organic carbon; elemental carbon; spatial variation; Xiamen; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, S.; Chen, L.; Li, Y.; Xing, Z.; Du, K. Summertime Spatial Variations in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Components in Different Functional Areas of Xiamen, China. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 234-254.

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