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The Spring-Time Boundary Layer in the Central Arctic Observed during PAMARCMiP 2009
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Telegrafenberg A43, Potsdam 14473, Germany
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven 27570, Germany
Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305, USA
Jade Hochschule, Weserstr. 4, Elsfleth 26931, Germany
Fielax GmbH, Schleusenstr. 14, Bremerhaven 27568, Germany
Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E3, Canada
Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Bering Street 38, St. Petersburg 199397, Russia
Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Downsview M3H 5T4, Canada
Current address: Institute of Aerospace Systems, TU Braunschweig, Hermann-Blenk-Street 23, Braunschweig 38108, Germany.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2012; in revised form: 2 May 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 16 July 2012
Abstract: The Arctic atmospheric boundary layer (AABL) in the central Arctic was characterized by dropsonde, lidar, ice thickness and airborne in situ measurements during the international Polar Airborne Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Simulation Project (PAMARCMiP) in April 2009. We discuss AABL observations in the lowermost 500 m above (A) open water, (B) sea ice with many open/refrozen leads (C) sea ice with few leads, and (D) closed sea ice with a front modifying the AABL. Above water, the AABL had near-neutral stratification and contained a high water vapor concentration. Above sea ice, a low AABL top, low near-surface temperatures, strong surface-based temperature inversions and an increase of moisture with altitude were observed. AABL properties and particle concentrations were modified by a frontal system, allowing vertical mixing with the free atmosphere. Above areas with many leads, the potential temperature decreased with height in the lowest 50 m and was nearly constant above, up to an altitude of 100–200 m, indicating vertical mixing. The increase of the backscatter coefficient towards the surface was high. Above sea ice with few refrozen leads, the stably stratified boundary layer extended up to 200–300 m altitude. It was characterized by low specific humidity and a smaller increase of the backscatter coefficient towards the surface.
Keywords: Arctic boundary layer; dropsonde; airborne lidar; sea ice thickness
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lampert, A.; Maturilli, M.; Ritter, C.; Hoffmann, A.; Stock, M.; Herber, A.; Birnbaum, G.; Neuber, R.; Dethloff, K.; Orgis, T.; Stone, R.; Brauner, R.; Kässbohrer, J.; Haas, C.; Makshtas, A.; Sokolov, V.; Liu, P. The Spring-Time Boundary Layer in the Central Arctic Observed during PAMARCMiP 2009. Atmosphere 2012, 3, 320-351.
Lampert A, Maturilli M, Ritter C, Hoffmann A, Stock M, Herber A, Birnbaum G, Neuber R, Dethloff K, Orgis T, Stone R, Brauner R, Kässbohrer J, Haas C, Makshtas A, Sokolov V, Liu P. The Spring-Time Boundary Layer in the Central Arctic Observed during PAMARCMiP 2009. Atmosphere. 2012; 3(3):320-351.
Lampert, Astrid; Maturilli, Marion; Ritter, Christoph; Hoffmann, Anne; Stock, Maria; Herber, Andreas; Birnbaum, Gerit; Neuber, Roland; Dethloff, Klaus; Orgis, Thomas; Stone, Robert; Brauner, Ralf; Kässbohrer, Johannes; Haas, Christian; Makshtas, Alexander; Sokolov, Vladimir; Liu, Peter. 2012. "The Spring-Time Boundary Layer in the Central Arctic Observed during PAMARCMiP 2009." Atmosphere 3, no. 3: 320-351.