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Cells 2018, 7(9), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7090121

Centrosomal and Non-Centrosomal Microtubule-Organizing Centers (MTOCs) in Drosophila melanogaster

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University, 1115 West Call St., Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
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Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Biology of Centrosomal Structures in Eukaryotes)
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Abstract

The centrosome is the best-understood microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) and is essential in particular cell types and at specific stages during Drosophila development. The centrosome is not required zygotically for mitosis or to achieve full animal development. Nevertheless, centrosomes are essential maternally during cleavage cycles in the early embryo, for male meiotic divisions, for efficient division of epithelial cells in the imaginal wing disc, and for cilium/flagellum assembly in sensory neurons and spermatozoa. Importantly, asymmetric and polarized division of stem cells is regulated by centrosomes and by the asymmetric regulation of their microtubule (MT) assembly activity. More recently, the components and functions of a variety of non-centrosomal microtubule-organizing centers (ncMTOCs) have begun to be elucidated. Throughout Drosophila development, a wide variety of unique ncMTOCs form in epithelial and non-epithelial cell types at an assortment of subcellular locations. Some of these cell types also utilize the centrosomal MTOC, while others rely exclusively on ncMTOCs. The impressive variety of ncMTOCs being discovered provides novel insight into the diverse functions of MTOCs in cells and tissues. This review highlights our current knowledge of the composition, assembly, and functional roles of centrosomal and non-centrosomal MTOCs in Drosophila. View Full-Text
Keywords: centrosome; centriole; Drosophila; microtubule-organizing center (MTOC); non-centrosomal MTOC; ninein; patronin; γ-tubulin; microtubule centrosome; centriole; Drosophila; microtubule-organizing center (MTOC); non-centrosomal MTOC; ninein; patronin; γ-tubulin; microtubule
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Tillery, M.M.L.; Blake-Hedges, C.; Zheng, Y.; Buchwalter, R.A.; Megraw, T.L. Centrosomal and Non-Centrosomal Microtubule-Organizing Centers (MTOCs) in Drosophila melanogaster. Cells 2018, 7, 121.

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