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Cells 2017, 6(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6040045

The Role of Hypoxia in Glioblastoma Invasion

1
Centre for Biomedical Research (CBMR), University of Algarve, Campus of Gambelas, Building 8, Room 3.4, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
2
Brain Tumour Research Centre of Excellence, Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Motility and Adhesion)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1167 KB, uploaded 24 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and deadly type of primary malignant brain tumor, with a patient’s median survival rate ranging from 15 to 17 months. The current treatment for GBM involves tumor resection surgery based on MRI image analysis, followed by radiotherapy and treatment with temozolomide. However, the gradual development of tumor resistance to temozolomide is frequent in GBM patients leading to subsequent tumor regrowth/relapse. For this reason, the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for GBM is of critical importance. Low tumor oxygenation, also known as hypoxia, constitutes a major concern for GBM patients, since it promotes cancer cell spreading (invasion) into the healthy brain tissue in order to evade this adverse microenvironment. Tumor invasion not only constitutes a major obstacle to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, but it is also the main cause of death in GBM patients. Understanding how hypoxia triggers the GBM cells to become invasive is paramount to developing novel and more effective therapies against this devastating disease. In this review, we will present a comprehensive examination of the available literature focused on investigating how GBM hypoxia triggers an invasive cancer cell phenotype and the role of these invasive proteins in GBM progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: GBM; hypoxia; HIF; invasion; chemotherapy GBM; hypoxia; HIF; invasion; chemotherapy
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Monteiro, A.R.; Hill, R.; Pilkington, G.J.; Madureira, P.A. The Role of Hypoxia in Glioblastoma Invasion. Cells 2017, 6, 45.

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