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Cells 2017, 6(4), 32; doi:10.3390/cells6040032

Use of Human Neurons Derived via Cellular Reprogramming Methods to Study Host-Parasite Interactions of Toxoplasma gondii in Neurons

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59718, USA
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine)
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Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, with approximately one-third of the worlds’ population chronically infected. In chronically infected individuals, the parasite resides in tissue cysts in neurons in the brain. The chronic infection in immunocompetant individuals has traditionally been considered to be asymptomatic, but increasing evidence indicates that chronic infection is associated with diverse neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, cryptogenic epilepsy, and Parkinson’s Disease. The mechanisms by which the parasite exerts affects on behavior and other neuronal functions are not understood. Human neurons derived from cellular reprogramming methods offer the opportunity to develop better human neuronal models to study T. gondii in neurons. Results from two studies using human neurons derived via cellular reprogramming methods indicate these human neuronal models provide better in vitro models to study the effects of T. gondii on neurons and neurological functions. In this review, an overview of the current neural reprogramming methods will be given, followed by a summary of the studies using human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons and induced neurons (iNs) to study T. gondii in neurons. The potential of these neural reprogramming methods for further study of the host-parasite interactions of T. gondii in neurons will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: cysts; bradyzoites; chronic Toxoplasmosis; Cerebral Toxoplasmosis; latent infection; spontaneous cyst formation; T. gondii in neurons cysts; bradyzoites; chronic Toxoplasmosis; Cerebral Toxoplasmosis; latent infection; spontaneous cyst formation; T. gondii in neurons
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Halonen, S.K. Use of Human Neurons Derived via Cellular Reprogramming Methods to Study Host-Parasite Interactions of Toxoplasma gondii in Neurons. Cells 2017, 6, 32.

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