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Polymers 2017, 9(9), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9090361

Effect of Urea and Borate Plasticizers on Rheological Response of Corn Starch

1
College of Engineering, Muzahimiyah Branch, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma’an 71111, Jordan
3
Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
5
Arriyadh Community College, King Saud University, Arriyadh 11437, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract

Although starch based materials have an array of fascinating industrial applications, the native starches do not show good mechanical strength, thermal stability, and rheological properties for their use in the mainstream processing industry. For example, the use of starches for producing controlled release fertilizers is a new research endeavor with detailed knowledge still to come. The thermal processing of native starches with water as a plasticizer results in poor physical and pasting properties of the final product. Therefore in this study, corn starch was thermally processed with urea and borate in a water medium. The pure starch (PS), starch-urea (SU), starch-borate (SB), and starch-urea-borate (SUB) samples were prepared and characterized for their rheological traits. The PS sample exhibited a peak viscosity of 299 cP after 17 min of thermal processing. Further heating of the suspension caused a decrease in viscosity of 38 points due to thermal cracking of the starch granules. A similar trend was depicted in the viscosity measurements of SU, SB, and SUB adhesives. However, the viscosity of these samples remained slightly higher than that for PS. Also, the reduction in viscosity after the peak value was not as notable as for PS. The modified starch behaved like a gel and its storage modulus was significantly higher than the loss modulus. The lower magnitudes of storage and loss moduli revealed that the modified starch was in the form of a weak gel and not a solid. The PS is more fluid in nature with dominating loss modulus at lower angular frequencies. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrate polymers; urea; borate; rheology carbohydrate polymers; urea; borate; rheology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ibrahim, K.A.; Naz, M.Y.; Sulaiman, S.A.; Ghaffar, A.; Jamil, Y.; Abdel-Salam, N.M. Effect of Urea and Borate Plasticizers on Rheological Response of Corn Starch. Polymers 2017, 9, 361.

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