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Polymers 2017, 9(6), 207; doi:10.3390/polym9060207

Unique Halloysite Nanotubes–Polyvinyl Alcohol–Polyvinylpyrrolidone Composite Complemented with Physico–Chemical Characterization

1
Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
2
Department of Machinery Equipment Engineering Techniques, Technical College Al-Musaib, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Al-Musaib, Babil 51009, Iraq
3
Department of Chemical & Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
4
Energy and Renewable Energies Technology Centre, University of Technology, Baghdad 10001, Iraq
5
Program of Chemical Engineering, Taylor’s University-Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
6
Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohamed Khayet
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 27 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3515 KB, uploaded 6 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

A halloysite nanotubes–polyvinyl alcohol–polyvinylpyrrolidone (HNTs–PVA–PVP) composite has been investigated for a quite long time aiming at improving the physico–chemical characterization of HNTs. In this work, HNTs–PVA–PVP composite were prepared based on a unique procedure characterized by crosslinking two polymers with HNTs. The composite of two polymers were modified by treating HNTs with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and by using malonic acid (MA) as a crosslinker. The composite was also treated by adding the dispersion agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The HNTs–PVA–PVP composite shows better characteristics regarding agglomeration when HNTs is treated in advance by H3PO4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), brunauer–emmett–teller (BET), size distribution, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the physio-chemical properties of the composite. FTIR shows additional peaks at 2924.29, 1455.7, and 682.4 cm−1 compared to the neat HNTs due to adding MA. Despite that, the XRD spectra do not show a significant difference, the decrease in peak intensity could be attributed to the addition of semi-crystalline PVA and the amorphous PVP. The images taken by TEM and FESEM show the possible effects of MA on the morphology and internal feature of HNTs–PVA–PVP composite treated by MA by showing the deformation of the matrix. The BET surface area increased to 121.1 m2/g compared to the neat HNTs at 59.1 m2/g. This result, the second highest recorded result, is considered a breakthrough in enhancing the properties of HNTs–PVA–PVP composite, and treatment by MA crosslinking may attribute to the size and the number of the pores. The results from these techniques clearly showed that a significant change has occurred for treated HNTs–PVA–PVP composite where MA was added. The characterization of HNTs–PVA–PVP composite with and without treating HNTs and using crosslinker may lead to a better understanding of this new composites as a precursor to possible applications in the dentistry field. View Full-Text
Keywords: Halloysite nanotubes; polyvinyl alcohol; polyvinylpyrrolidone; physico–chemical properties; surface area Halloysite nanotubes; polyvinyl alcohol; polyvinylpyrrolidone; physico–chemical properties; surface area
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaaz, T.S.; Kadhum, A.A.H.; Michael, P.K.A.; Al-Amiery, A.A.; Sulong, A.B.; Nassir, M.H.; Jaaz, A.H. Unique Halloysite Nanotubes–Polyvinyl Alcohol–Polyvinylpyrrolidone Composite Complemented with Physico–Chemical Characterization. Polymers 2017, 9, 207.

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