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Polymers 2017, 9(5), 164; doi:10.3390/polym9050164

Syneresis in Gels of Highly Ferulated Arabinoxylans: Characterization of Covalent Cross-Linking, Rheology, and Microstructure

1
Research Center for Food and Development, CIAD, A.C. Carretera a La Victoria Km. 0.6, Hermosillo, Sonora 83304, Mexico
2
Department of Medicine, University of Sonora, Rosales y Blvd. Luis D. Colosio, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
3
Department of Polymers and Materials, University of Sonora, Rosales y Blvd. Luis D. Colosio, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
4
Department of Physics Research, University of Sonora, Rosales y Blvd. Luis D. Colosio, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helmut Schlaad
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-inspired and Bio-based Polymers)
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Abstract

Arabinoxylans (AXs) with high ferulic acid (FA) content (7.18 µg/mg AXs) were cross-linked using laccase. Storage (G’) modulus of AX solutions at 1% (AX-1) and 2% (AX-2) (w/v) registered maximum values of 409 Pa and 889 Pa at 180 min and 83 min, respectively. Atomic force microscopy revealed the grained and irregular surface of the AX-1 gel and the smoother surface without significant depressions of the AX-2 gel. Cured AX gels exhibited a liquid phase surrounding the samples indicating syneresis. The syneresis ratio percentage (% Rs) of the gels was registered over time reaching stabilization at 20 h. The % Rs was not significantly different between AX-1 (60.0%) and AX-2 (62.8%) gels. After 20 h of syneresis development, the dimers of the FA in the AX-1 and AX-2 gels significantly increased by 9% and 78%, respectively; moreover, the trimers of the FA in the AX-1 and AX-2 gels, by 94% and 300%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after syneresis stabilization, AX gels presented a more compact microstructure. Syneresis development in the gels of highly ferulated AXs could be related to the polymer network contraction due to the additional formation of dimers and trimers of the FA (cross-linking structures), which may act like a “zipping” process, increasing the polymer chains′ connectivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: arabinoxylan gel; ferulic acid; syneresis; maize bran arabinoxylan gel; ferulic acid; syneresis; maize bran
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morales-Burgos, A.M.; Carvajal-Millan, E.; López-Franco, Y.L.; Rascón-Chu, A.; Lizardi-Mendoza, J.; Sotelo-Cruz, N.; Brown-Bojórquez, F.; Burgara-Estrella, A.; Pedroza-Montero, M. Syneresis in Gels of Highly Ferulated Arabinoxylans: Characterization of Covalent Cross-Linking, Rheology, and Microstructure. Polymers 2017, 9, 164.

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