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Polymers 2017, 9(11), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110584

3D Biofabrication of Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU)/Poly-l-lactic Acid (PLLA) Electrospun Nanofibers Containing Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) for Tissue Engineering Aortic Heart Valve

1
Department of Materials, Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
2
Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospinning of Nanofibres)
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Abstract

Valvular dysfunction as the prominent reason of heart failure may causes morbidity and mortality around the world. The inability of human body to regenerate the defected heart valves necessitates the development of the artificial prosthesis to be replaced. Besides, the lack of capacity to grow, repair or remodel of an artificial valves and biological difficulty such as infection or inflammation make the development of tissue engineering heart valve (TEHV) concept. This research presented the use of compound of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and maghemite nanoparticle (γ-Fe2O3) as the potential biomaterials to develop three-dimensional (3D) aortic heart valve scaffold. Electrospinning was used for fabricating the 3D scaffold. The steepest ascent followed by the response surface methodology was used to optimize the electrospinning parameters involved in terms of elastic modulus. The structural and porosity properties of fabricated scaffold were characterized using FE-SEM and liquid displacement technique, respectively. The 3D scaffold was then seeded with aortic smooth muscle cells (AOSMCs) and biological behavior in terms of cell attachment and proliferation during 34 days of incubation was characterized using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and confocal laser microscopy. Furthermore, the mechanical properties in terms of elastic modulus and stiffness were investigated after cell seeding through macro-indentation test. The analysis indicated the formation of ultrafine quality of nanofibers with diameter distribution of 178 ± 45 nm and 90.72% porosity. In terms of cell proliferation, the results exhibited desirable proliferation (109.32 ± 3.22% compared to the control) of cells over the 3D scaffold in 34 days of incubation. The elastic modulus and stiffness index after cell seeding were founded to be 22.78 ± 2.12 MPa and 1490.9 ± 12 Nmm2, respectively. Overall, the fabricated 3D scaffold exhibits desirable structural, biological and mechanical properties and has the potential to be used in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrospinning; tissue engineering; heart valve; maghemite nanoparticles; macro-indentation test; response surface methodology electrospinning; tissue engineering; heart valve; maghemite nanoparticles; macro-indentation test; response surface methodology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Fallahiarezoudar, E.; Ahmadipourroudposht, M.; Yusof, N.M.; Idris, A.; Ngadiman, N.H.A. 3D Biofabrication of Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU)/Poly-l-lactic Acid (PLLA) Electrospun Nanofibers Containing Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) for Tissue Engineering Aortic Heart Valve. Polymers 2017, 9, 584.

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