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Polymers 2016, 8(5), 173; doi:10.3390/polym8050173

Properties of Polymer Composites Used in High-Voltage Applications

1
Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH (PCCL), Roseggerstrasse 12, Leoben 8700, Austria
2
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Electrotechnical Material Laboratory, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042, Romania
3
Institute of Energy, Transport and Environmental Management, University of Applied Science–FH Joanneum, Werk-VI-Straße 46, Kapfenberg 8605, Austria
4
Institute of High Voltage Engineering and System Performance, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 18/I, Graz 8010, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frank Wiesbrock
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 7 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano- and Microcomposites for Electrical Engineering Applications)

Abstract

The present review article represents a comprehensive study on polymer micro/nanocomposites that are used in high-voltage applications. Particular focus is on the structure-property relationship of composite materials used in power engineering, by exploiting fundamental theory as well as numerical/analytical models and the influence of material design on electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. In addition to describing the scientific development of micro/nanocomposites electrical features desired in power engineering, the study is mainly focused on the electrical properties of insulating materials, particularly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and epoxy resins, unfilled and filled with different types of filler. Polymer micro/nanocomposites based on XLPE and epoxy resins are usually used as insulating systems for high-voltage applications, such as: cables, generators, motors, cast resin dry-type transformers, etc. Furthermore, this paper includes ample discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages resulting in the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties by the addition of micro- and nanofillers into the base polymer. The study goals are to determine the impact of filler size, type and distribution of the particles into the polymer matrix on the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer micro/nanocomposites compared to the neat polymer and traditionally materials used as insulation systems in high-voltage engineering. Properties such as electrical conductivity, relative permittivity, dielectric losses, partial discharges, erosion resistance, space charge behavior, electric breakdown, tracking and electrical tree resistance, thermal conductivity, tensile strength and modulus, elongation at break of micro- and nanocomposites based on epoxy resin and XLPE are analyzed. Finally, it was concluded that the use of polymer micro/nanocomposites in electrical engineering is very promising and further research work must be accomplished in order to diversify the polymer composites matrices and to improve their properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro/nanocomposites; electrical properties; mechanical properties; thermal properties; high-voltage applications; cross-linked polyethylene; epoxy resins; numerical and analytical models; polymer/filler interface micro/nanocomposites; electrical properties; mechanical properties; thermal properties; high-voltage applications; cross-linked polyethylene; epoxy resins; numerical and analytical models; polymer/filler interface
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pleşa, I.; Noţingher, P.V.; Schlögl, S.; Sumereder, C.; Muhr, M. Properties of Polymer Composites Used in High-Voltage Applications. Polymers 2016, 8, 173.

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