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Polymers 2016, 8(12), 425; doi:10.3390/polym8120425

Polyetheretherketone Hybrid Composites with Bioactive Nanohydroxyapatite and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Fillers

1
Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
2
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrick van Rijn
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles 2016)
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Abstract

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) hybrid composites reinforced with inorganic nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) were prepared by melt-compounding and injection molding processes. The additions of nHA and MWNT to PEEK were aimed to increase its elastic modulus, tensile strength, and biocompatibility, rendering the hybrids suitable for load-bearing implant applications. The structural behavior, mechanical property, wettability, osteoblastic cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of the PEEK/nHA-MWNT hybrids were studied. X-ray diffraction and SEM observation showed that both nHA and MWNT fillers are incorporated into the polymer matrix of PEEK-based hybrids. Tensile tests indicated that the elastic modulus of PEEK can be increased from 3.87 to 7.13 GPa by adding 15 vol % nHA and 1.88 vol % MWNT fillers. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the PEEK/(15% nHA)-(1.88% MWNT) hybrid were 64.48 MPa and 1.74%, respectively. Thus the tensile properties of this hybrid were superior to those of human cortical bones. Water contact angle measurements revealed that the PEEK/(15% nHA)-(1.88% MWNT) hybrid is hydrophilic due to the presence of nHA. Accordingly, hydrophilic PEEK/(15% nHA)-(1.88% MWNT) hybrid promoted the adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts on its surface effectively on the basis of cell culture, fluorescence microscopy, MTT assay, WST-1 assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, and Alizarin red staining tests. Thus the PEEK/(15% nHA)-(1.88% MWNT) hybrid has the potential to be used for fabricating load-bearing bone implants. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyetheretherketone; nanohydroxyapatite; multiwalled carbon nanotube; hybrid nanocomposites; hydrophilic surface; osteoblasts; biocompatibility polyetheretherketone; nanohydroxyapatite; multiwalled carbon nanotube; hybrid nanocomposites; hydrophilic surface; osteoblasts; biocompatibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, C.; Chan, K.W.; Shen, J.; Liao, C.Z.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Tjong, S.C. Polyetheretherketone Hybrid Composites with Bioactive Nanohydroxyapatite and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Fillers. Polymers 2016, 8, 425.

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