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Surface Initiated Polymerizations via e-ATRP in Pure Water
Chemical Process Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Forckenbeckstrasse 50, Aachen D-52056, Germany
Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Electrocatalytic Green Engineering Group, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, PQ H3G 1M8, Canada
DWI an der RWTH, IPC Macromolecular Materials and Surfaces, RWTH Aachen University, Forckenbeckstrasse 50, Aachen D-52056, Germany
Department of Biomedical Engineering-FB40, W.J. Kolff Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, Groningen 9713 AV, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2013; in revised form: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Abstract: Here we describe the combined process of surface modification with electrochemical atom transfer radical polymerization (e-ATRP) initiated from the surface of a modified gold-electrode in a pure aqueous solution without any additional supporting electrolyte. This approach allows for a very controlled growth of the polymer chains leading towards a steady increase in film thickness. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance displayed a highly regular increase in surface confined mass only after the addition of the pre-copper catalyst which is reduced in situ and transformed into the catalyst. Even after isolation and washing of the modified electrode surface, reinitiation was achieved with retention of the controlled electrochemical ATRP reaction. This reinitiation after isolation proves the livingness of the polymerization. This approach has interesting potential for smart thin film materials and offers also the possibility of post-modification via additional electrochemical induced reactions.
Keywords: atom transfer radical polymerization; electro-chemistry; surface polymerization; thin films; surface chemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hosseiny, S.S.; van Rijn, P. Surface Initiated Polymerizations via e-ATRP in Pure Water. Polymers 2013, 5, 1229-1240.
Hosseiny SS, van Rijn P. Surface Initiated Polymerizations via e-ATRP in Pure Water. Polymers. 2013; 5(4):1229-1240.
Hosseiny, Seyed S.; van Rijn, Patrick. 2013. "Surface Initiated Polymerizations via e-ATRP in Pure Water." Polymers 5, no. 4: 1229-1240.