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Polymers 2013, 5(1), 303-327; doi:10.3390/polym5010303

Pressure Retarded Osmosis and Forward Osmosis Membranes: Materials and Methods

Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim N-7491, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2013 / Revised: 23 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 February 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Thin Films and Membranes 2013)
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In the past four decades, membrane development has occurred based on the demand in pressure driven processes. However, in the last decade, the interest in osmotically driven processes, such as forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), has increased. The preparation of customized membranes is essential for the development of these technologies. Recently, several very promising membrane preparation methods for FO/PRO applications have emerged. Preparation of thin film composite (TFC) membranes with a customized polysulfone (PSf) support, electorspun support, TFC membranes on hydrophilic support and hollow fiber membranes have been reported for FO/PRO applications. These novel methods allow the use of other materials than the traditional asymmetric cellulose acetate (CA) membranes and TFC polyamide/polysulfone membranes. This review provides an outline of the membrane requirements for FO/PRO and the new methods and materials in membrane preparation.
Keywords: pressure retarded osmosis; forward osmosis; membrane preparation; materials; methods pressure retarded osmosis; forward osmosis; membrane preparation; materials; methods
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Alsvik, I.L.; Hägg, M.-B. Pressure Retarded Osmosis and Forward Osmosis Membranes: Materials and Methods. Polymers 2013, 5, 303-327.

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