Abstract: Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.
Keywords: electrically conductive epoxy; resistivity; conductivity; contact resistance; filler particle; percolation; volume fraction; nickel flakes; nickel powder; nickel filaments; silver particles; copper particles; conductive adhesive; adhesive thickness
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Sancaktar, E.; Bai, L. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives. Polymers 2011, 3, 427-466.
Sancaktar E, Bai L. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives. Polymers. 2011; 3(1):427-466.
Sancaktar, Erol; Bai, Lan. 2011. "Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives." Polymers 3, no. 1: 427-466.