Polymers 2011, 3(1), 340-366; doi:10.3390/polym3010340
Review

New Strategies in the Development of Antimicrobial Coatings: The Example of Increasing Usage of Silver and Silver Nanoparticles

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Received: 15 November 2010; in revised form: 23 December 2010 / Accepted: 24 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofunctional Polymers for Medical Applications)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Bacterial infection from medical devices is a major problem and accounts for an increasing number of deaths as well as high medical costs. Many different strategies have been developed to decrease the incidence of medical device related infection. One way to prevent infection is by modifying the surface of the devices in such a way that no bacterial adhesion can occur. This requires modification of the complete surface with, mostly, hydrophilic polymeric surface coatings. These materials are designed to be non-fouling, meaning that protein adsorption and subsequent microbial adhesion are minimized. Incorporation of antimicrobial agents in the bulk material or as a surface coating has been considered a viable alternative for systemic application of antibiotics. However, the manifestation of more and more multi-drug resistant bacterial strains restrains the use of antibiotics in a preventive strategy. The application of silver nanoparticles on the surface of medical devices has been used to prevent bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation. The nanoparticles are either deposited directly on the device surface, or applied in a polymeric surface coating. The silver is slowly released from the surface, thereby killing the bacteria present near the surface. In the last decade there has been a surplus of studies applying the concept of silver nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent on a range of different medical devices. The main problem however is that the exact antimicrobial mechanism of silver remains unclear. Additionally, the antimicrobial efficacy of silver on medical devices varies to a great extent. Here we will review existing antimicrobial coating strategies and discuss the use of silver or silver nanoparticles on surfaces that are designed to prevent medical device related infections.
Keywords: silver nanoparticles; polymer; coating; infection; catheter; medical device; implant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Knetsch, M.L.W.; Koole, L.H. New Strategies in the Development of Antimicrobial Coatings: The Example of Increasing Usage of Silver and Silver Nanoparticles. Polymers 2011, 3, 340-366.

AMA Style

Knetsch MLW, Koole LH. New Strategies in the Development of Antimicrobial Coatings: The Example of Increasing Usage of Silver and Silver Nanoparticles. Polymers. 2011; 3(1):340-366.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Knetsch, Menno L. W.; Koole, Leo H. 2011. "New Strategies in the Development of Antimicrobial Coatings: The Example of Increasing Usage of Silver and Silver Nanoparticles." Polymers 3, no. 1: 340-366.

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