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Polymers 2018, 10(8), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10080864

Antimicrobial LDPE/EVOH Layered Films Containing Carvacrol Fabricated by Multiplication Extrusion

1
Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, Israel
2
Center for Layered Polymeric Systems, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7202, USA
3
The Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymer-Based Materials for Food Packaging Applications)
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Abstract

This work describes the fabrication of antimicrobial multilayered polymeric films containing carvacrol (used as a model essential oil) by co-extrusion and multiplication technique. The microlayering process was utilized to produce films, with up to 65 alternating layers, of carvacrol-containing low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). Carvacrol was melt compounded with LDPE or loaded into halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in a pre-compounding step prior film production. The detailed nanostructure and composition (in terms of carvacrol content) of the films were characterized and correlated to their barrier properties, carvacrol release rate, and antibacterial and antifungal activity. The resulting films exhibit high carvacrol content despite the harsh processing conditions (temperature of 200 °C and long processing time), regardless of the number of layers or the presence of HNTs. The multilayered films exhibit superior oxygen transmission rates and carvacrol diffusivity values that are more than two orders of magnitude lower in comparison to single-layered carvacrol-containing films (i.e., LDPE/carvacrol and LDPE/(HNTs/carvacrol)) produced by conventional cast extrusion. The (LDPE/carvacrol)/EVOH and (LDPE/[HNTs/carvacrol])/EVOH films demonstrated excellent antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli and Alternaria alternata in in vitro micro-atmosphere assays and against A. alternata and Rhizopus in cherry tomatoes, used as the food model. The results presented here suggest that sensitive essential oils, such as carvacrol, can be incorporated into plastic polymers constructed of tailored multiple layers, without losing their antimicrobial efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial; EVOH; essential oils; carvacrol; halloysite nanotubes; multilayered films antimicrobial; EVOH; essential oils; carvacrol; halloysite nanotubes; multilayered films
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Krepker, M.; Zhang, C.; Nitzan, N.; Prinz-Setter, O.; Massad-Ivanir, N.; Olah, A.; Baer, E.; Segal, E. Antimicrobial LDPE/EVOH Layered Films Containing Carvacrol Fabricated by Multiplication Extrusion. Polymers 2018, 10, 864.

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