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Polymers 2018, 10(7), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070736

Structural Characterization of Lignin and Lignin-Carbohydrate Complex (LCC) from Ginkgo Shells (Ginkgo biloba L.) by Comprehensive NMR Spectroscopy

1
Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
2
Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract

Lignin and lignin-carbohydrate complexes are important polymers for lignocellulosic biorefinery and functional materials, but those in ginkgo shells are not effectively analyzed and exploited. Based on this background, milled wood lignins (MWLML and MWLFZ) and lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCML and LCCFZ) were isolated from the shells of Ginkgo biloba L. cv. Damaling (ML) and Ginkgo biloba L. cv. Dafozhi (FZ) correspondingly, and were structurally characterized by comprehensive NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that ginkgo shells exhibited higher lignin (42%) and xylan (20%) content than general softwood species. Isolated MWLs were rich in guaiacyl units with the presence of ferulates and p-coumarates, and the molecular formula was C9H7.93O2.73(OCH3)0.81 and C9H7.87O2.76(OCH3)0.88 for MWLML and MWLFZ, respectively. Phenolic hydroxyl of MWLML (1.38 mmol/g) and MWLFZ (1.23 mmol/g) in ginkgo shells was much less than that in general softwoods, suggesting a higher etherification and condensation degree of ginkgo shells lignin, and β-5′, α-O-4′, and 4-O-5′ bonds were the main condensed structures. O-acetylated β-d-xylopyranoside and β-d-mannopyranoside were the main polysaccharides associated with lignin, and the acetyl groups frequently acylate the C2 and C3 positions. LCCML had more phenyl glycoside (0.035/Ar) and less γ-ester (0.026/Ar) linkages than LCCFZ. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginkgo shells; Lignin; lignin-carbohydrate complex; structure; NMR ginkgo shells; Lignin; lignin-carbohydrate complex; structure; NMR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Jiang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Guo, T.; Zhao, H.; Jin, Y. Structural Characterization of Lignin and Lignin-Carbohydrate Complex (LCC) from Ginkgo Shells (Ginkgo biloba L.) by Comprehensive NMR Spectroscopy. Polymers 2018, 10, 736.

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