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Polymers 2018, 10(5), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10050519

PLGA Microspheres Loaded with β-Cyclodextrin Complexes of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate for the Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Activated Microglial Cells

1
Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Changhua Christian Hospital, 135 Nanxiao St., Changhua City, Changhua County 500, Taiwan
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung-Pei Rd., Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 32023, Taiwan
3
Center for Biomedical Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung-Pei Rd., Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 32023, Taiwan
4
Department of Bioscience Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung-Pei Rd., Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 32023, Taiwan
5
Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Yuanlin Christian Hospital, No.456, Juguang Rd., Yuanlin City, Changhua County 510, Taiwan
6
Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, 145 Xingda Rd., South District, Taichung City 402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biobased Polyesters)
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Abstract

Although epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EG) is well-known as a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger for neurodegenerative diseases, it still has disadvantages that reduce its treatment effectiveness due to low bioavailability, slow absorption, and water solubility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to improve the bioavailability of EG and increase the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory properties to microglial cells by using Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres as carriers. In this study, we used UV–Vis spectroscopy to show the formation of the complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and EG (CD-EG). The loading efficiency of EG in PLGA microspheres was optimized by the addition of β-CD. The highest loading efficiency of 16.34% was found among other formulations. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the loading of CD-EG in PLGA microspheres. The scanning electron microscopic images demonstrated the spherical PLGA particles with controlled particles size ranging from 1–14 µm. Moreover, the in vitro release of EG was conducted to explore the sustained release property of the PLGA formulations. In the in vitro model of mouse microglial cells (BV-2 cells) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, the cytotoxicity test showed that for up to 1 mg/mL of PLGA microspheres no toxicity to BV-2 cells was found. PLGA microspheres can significantly suppress the nitric oxide production from BV-2 cells, indicating EG loaded in PLGA microspheres can suppress the inflammation of activated microglial cells. Furthermore, the intracellular iNOS in BV-2 cells was also found to be down regulated. In summary, we have successfully shown that the use of β-CD can increase the loading efficiency of EG in PLGA microspheres and provide neuroprotective effect on the activated microglial cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: microglia cells; epigallocatechin-3-gallate; PLGA; non-toxicity; biodegradable; anti-inflammation; bovine serum albumin; β-cyclodextrin microglia cells; epigallocatechin-3-gallate; PLGA; non-toxicity; biodegradable; anti-inflammation; bovine serum albumin; β-cyclodextrin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cheng, C.-Y.; Pho, Q.-H.; Wu, X.-Y.; Chin, T.-Y.; Chen, C.-M.; Fang, P.-H.; Lin, Y.-C.; Hsieh, M.-F. PLGA Microspheres Loaded with β-Cyclodextrin Complexes of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate for the Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Activated Microglial Cells. Polymers 2018, 10, 519.

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