Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Potential Advantage of Multiple Alkali Metal Doped KNbO3 Single Crystals
Previous Article in Journal
Electric Field Effects on Photoluminescence of CdSe Nanoparticles in a PMMA Film
Previous Article in Special Issue
Orientation and Temperature Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Sillenite-Type Bi12TiO20 and Bi12SiO20 Single Crystals
Crystals 2014, 4(2), 168-189; doi:10.3390/cryst4020168
Review

Flux-Grown Piezoelectric Materials: Application to α-Quartz Analogues

* ,
,
 and
Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR5253, CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, C2M, UMII, CC 1504, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Crystals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [563 KB, uploaded 23 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Using the slow-cooling method in selected MoO3-based fluxes, single-crystals of GeO2 and GaPO4 materials with an α-quartz-like structure were grown at high temperatures (T ≥ 950 °C). These piezoelectric materials were obtained in millimeter-size as well-faceted, visually colorless and transparent crystals. Compared to crystals grown by hydrothermal methods, infrared and Raman measurements revealed flux-grown samples without significant hydroxyl group contamination and thermal analyses demonstrated a total reversibility of the α-quartz ↔ β-cristobalite phase transition for GaPO4 and an absence of phase transition before melting for α-GeO2. The elastic constants CIJ (with I, J indices from 1 to 6) of these flux-grown piezoelectric crystals were experimentally determined at room and high temperatures. The ambient results for as-grown α-GaPO4 were in good agreement with those obtained from hydrothermally-grown samples and the two longitudinal elastic constants measured versus temperature up to 850 °C showed a monotonous evolution. The extraction of the ambient piezoelectric stress contribution e11 from the CD11 to CE11 difference gave for the piezoelectric strain coefficient d11 of flux-grown α-GeO2 crystal a value of 5.7(2) pC/N, which is more than twice that of α-quartz. As the α-quartz structure of GeO2 remained stable up to melting, a piezoelectric activity was observed up to 1000 °C.
Keywords: single crystal; GaPO4; GeO2; SiO2; raman; infrared; Brillouin; growth from high temperature solution; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); X-ray diffraction single crystal; GaPO4; GeO2; SiO2; raman; infrared; Brillouin; growth from high temperature solution; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); X-ray diffraction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Armand, P.; Lignie, A.; Beaurain, M.; Papet, P. Flux-Grown Piezoelectric Materials: Application to α-Quartz Analogues. Crystals 2014, 4, 168-189.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert