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Catalysts 2017, 7(4), 121; doi:10.3390/catal7040121

Merging Metallic Catalysts and Sonication: A Periodic Table Overview

1
Instituto de Química del Sur (INQUISUR), Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS)-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Avenida Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca 8000, Argentina
2
Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 9, 10125 Turin, Italy
3
Departamento de Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias-Universidad de Extremadura, and Instituto del Agua, Cambio Climático y Sostenibilidad (IACYS)-Unidad de Química Verde y Desarrollo Sostenible, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith Hohn
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enabling Technologies toward Green Catalysis)

Abstract

This account summarizes and discusses recent examples in which the combination of ultrasonic waves and metal-based reagents, including metal nanoparticles, has proven to be a useful choice in synthetic planning. Not only does sonication often enhance the activity of the metal catalyst/reagent, but it also greatly enhances the synthetic transformation that can be conducted under milder conditions relative to conventional protocols. For the sake of clarity, we have adopted a structure according to the periodic-table elements or families, distinguishing between bulk metal reagents and nanoparticles, as well as the supported variations, thus illustrating the characteristics of the method under consideration in target synthesis. The coverage focuses essentially on the last decade, although the discussion also strikes a comparative balance between the more recent advancements and past literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal catalysts; nanoparticles; organic synthesis; sonication; supported metal reagent/catalyst; ultrasound metal catalysts; nanoparticles; organic synthesis; sonication; supported metal reagent/catalyst; ultrasound
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Domini, C.E.; Álvarez, M.B.; Silbestri, G.F.; Cravotto, G.; Cintas, P. Merging Metallic Catalysts and Sonication: A Periodic Table Overview. Catalysts 2017, 7, 121.

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