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Catalysts 2017, 7(3), 83; doi:10.3390/catal7030083

Review of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Catalytically Upgrading Vegetable Oils into Hydrocarbon Biofuels

1
Department of Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
2
Department of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rafael Luque, Pedro Maireles-Torres and Manuel López-Granados
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [859 KB, uploaded 11 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

To address the issues of greenhouse gas emissions associated with fossil fuels, vegetable oilseeds, especially non-food oilseeds, are used as an alternative fuel resource. Vegetable oil derived from these oilseeds can be upgraded into hydrocarbon biofuel. Catalytic cracking and hydroprocessing are two of the most promising pathways for converting vegetable oil to hydrocarbon biofuel. Heterogeneous catalysts play a critical role in those processes. The present review summarizes current progresses and remaining challenges of vegetable oil upgrading to biofuel. The catalyst properties, applications, deactivation, and regeneration are reviewed. A comparison of catalysts used in vegetable oil and bio-oil upgrading is also carried out. Some suggestions for heterogeneous catalysts applied in vegetable oil upgrading to improve the yield and quality of hydrocarbon biofuel are provided for further research in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegetable oil; hydrocarbon; biofuel; catalytic cracking; hydroprocessing; deactivation; regeneration vegetable oil; hydrocarbon; biofuel; catalytic cracking; hydroprocessing; deactivation; regeneration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, X.; Wei, L.; Cheng, S.; Julson, J. Review of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Catalytically Upgrading Vegetable Oils into Hydrocarbon Biofuels. Catalysts 2017, 7, 83.

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