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Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 1756-1769; doi:10.3390/catal5041756

Performance of Ru/La2O3–ZnO Catalyst for the Selective Hydrogenation of Benzene to Cyclohexene

Ernst Berl-Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Technische Chemie II, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 8, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
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Academic Editor: Keith Hohn
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 18 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 22 October 2015
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Abstract

Cyclohexene is an important intermediate product for a highly efficient and greener formation of major end products like adipic acid, nylon 6, and nylon 6.6. By using a complex tetra-phase system (g/l/l/s) including hydrogen (g), water (l), an organic phase, i.e., benzene (l), and a supported ruthenium catalyst (s) it is possible to get the desired intermediate cyclohexene based on benzene. We prepared an oxide-supported ruthenium catalyst that was applied together with minimal amounts of the additive NaDCA (sodium dicyanamide) in a batch and continuous apparatus for the selective benzene hydrogenation. We compared these two processes and reached by an optimization of the reaction parameters in continuous process selectivities up to 50% at conversions of 36%. This corresponds to cyclohexene yields of 18% over a period of 100 h. Finally, the catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and laser scattering to understand the performance of the catalyst and the effect of the small deactivation. View Full-Text
Keywords: benzene; cyclohexene; ruthenium; hydrogenation; continuous; tetra-phase system benzene; cyclohexene; ruthenium; hydrogenation; continuous; tetra-phase system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Spod, H.; Lucas, M.; Claus, P. Performance of Ru/La2O3–ZnO Catalyst for the Selective Hydrogenation of Benzene to Cyclohexene. Catalysts 2015, 5, 1756-1769.

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