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Catalysts 2015, 5(1), 119-130; doi:10.3390/catal5010119

Guanidine Hydrochloride/ZnI2 as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Conversion of CO2 and Epoxides to Cyclic Carbonates under Mild Conditions

1
The Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China
2
School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Masahiko Arai and Fengyu Zhao
Received: 24 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published: 11 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Catalysts Recycling and Heterogeneous/Homogeneous Catalysis)
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Abstract

In this article, the combination of guanidine hydrochloride with co-catalyst ZnI2 proved to be a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the environmentally benign, solvent-free synthesis of cyclic carbonates under mild reaction conditions. The effects of different co-catalysts as well as reaction parameters including catalyst loadings, CO2 pressure, reaction temperature, and reaction time on the coupling reaction of CO2 to propylene oxide were thoroughly investigated. With the molar ratio of guanidine hydrochloride to ZnI2 at 5:1, excellent yield (94%) and selectivity (≥99%) of propylene carbonate were obtained under 100 °C and at 1 MPa for 1.5 h. Additionally, ZnI2 could be recycled, but because of the washing loss of guanidine hydrochloride, there was a slight decrease in the yield of propylene carbonate. Gratifyingly, the activity of the catalytic system could be restored by adding additional 20 mol% of fresh guanidine hydrochloride, thus exhibiting excellent recyclability of the ZnI2 catalyst. Moreover, the binary catalysts were also versatile when using other epoxides for CO2 cycloaddition. A possible reaction mechanism was proposed wherein guanidine hydrochloride plays a dual role in activating CO2 and epoxide, and ZnI2 activated epoxide, simultaneously. The synergistic effect of guanidine hydrochloride and ZnI2 ensure the reaction proceeds effectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: guanidine hydrochloride; ZnI2; CO2 fixation; cyclic carbonates; heterogeneous catalysis guanidine hydrochloride; ZnI2; CO2 fixation; cyclic carbonates; heterogeneous catalysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, B.; Liu, M.; Liang, L.; Sun, J. Guanidine Hydrochloride/ZnI2 as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Conversion of CO2 and Epoxides to Cyclic Carbonates under Mild Conditions. Catalysts 2015, 5, 119-130.

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