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Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 190; doi:10.3390/nu8040190

Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
2
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 19 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
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Abstract

Childhood and adolescent obesity is an international public health problem leading to an increased risk of adulthood obesity, mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence is increasing in low-income populations, and we hypothesized it may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D status is a worldwide public health issue including in Ethiopia; however, no one has examined overweight/obesity in Ethiopian schoolchildren with regard to vitamin D status. The Analyses of a data set from a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama Woreda (n = 85) was carried out to determine vitamin D deficiency and its association with overweight and/or obesity. Data on a total of 174 schoolchildren aged 11–18 years was used for these analyses. The overall prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was 10.3%, with 8.5% overweight and 2.3% obese; the prevalence of underweight was 19%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, vitamin D deficiency, being in the higher age group, female sex and urban residence of students, their mothers’ occupation of being employed and their households’ high and middle socioeconomic status were significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity. We concluded that vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity among schoolchildren from rural and urban settings in Ethiopia. The results imply the need for behavior change communications on the importance of exposure to sunlight to produce adequate vitamin D to curb this emerging health problem of overweight/obesity following economic growth and globalization in Ethiopia. As this study only highlighted the association, prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are required to establish causality. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D deficiency; overweight/obesity; schoolchildren; Ethiopia vitamin D deficiency; overweight/obesity; schoolchildren; Ethiopia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wakayo, T.; Whiting, S.J.; Belachew, T. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 190.

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