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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(8), 833; doi:10.3390/rs9080833

A Study of Landfast Ice with Sentinel-1 Repeat-Pass Interferometry over the Baltic Sea

1
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, 00100 Helsinki, Finland
2
Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11000, FI-00076 AALTO, 02150 Espoo, Finland
3
Finnish Meteorological Institute, Marine Research, Erik Palméninaukio 1, 00560, Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 5 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Remote Sensing)
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Abstract

Mapping of fast ice displacement and investigating sea ice rheological behavior is a major open topic in coastal ice engineering and sea ice modeling. This study presents first results on Sentinel-1 repeat-pass space borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) in the Gulf of Bothnia over the fast ice areas. An InSAR pair acquired in February 2015 with a temporal baseline of 12 days has been studied here in detail. According to our results, the surface of landfast ice in the study area was stable enough to preserve coherence over the 12-day baseline, while previous InSAR studies over the fast ice used much shorter temporal baselines. The advantage of longer temporal baseline is in separating the fast ice from drift ice and detecting long term trends in deformation maps. The interferogram showed displacement of fast ice on the order of 40 cm in the study area. Parts of the displacements were attributed to forces caused by sea level tilt, currents, and thermal expansion, but the main factor of the displacement seemed to be due to compression of the drift ice driven by southwest winds with high speed. Further interferometric phase and the coherence measurements over the fast ice are needed in the future for understanding sea ice mechanism and establishing sustainability of the presented InSAR approach for monitoring dynamics of the landfast ice with Sentinel-1 data. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sentinel-1; interferometric synthetic aperture radar; interferogram; interferometric coherence; fringes; landfast ice; the Baltic Sea; displacement Sentinel-1; interferometric synthetic aperture radar; interferogram; interferometric coherence; fringes; landfast ice; the Baltic Sea; displacement
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marbouti, M.; Praks, J.; Antropov, O.; Rinne, E.; Leppäranta, M. A Study of Landfast Ice with Sentinel-1 Repeat-Pass Interferometry over the Baltic Sea. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 833.

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