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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(7), 670; doi:10.3390/rs9070670

Calibration of METRIC Model to Estimate Energy Balance over a Drip-Irrigated Apple Orchard

Centro de Investigación y Transferencia en Riego y Agroclimatología (CITRA) and Research Program on Adaptation of Agriculture to Climate Change (A2C2), Universidad de Talca, Casilla 747, Talca 3460000, Chile
School of Natural Resources and Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 311 Hardin Hall, 3310 Holdrege Street, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA
Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Civil Engineering, Research and Ext. Center, University of Idaho, Kimberly, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Clement Atzberger
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [10045 KB, uploaded 29 June 2017]   |  


A field experiment was carried out to calibrate and evaluate the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution Internalized with Calibration) model for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of instantaneous net radiation (Rni), soil heat flux (Gi), sensible heat flux (Hi), and latent heat flux (LEi) over a drip-irrigated apple (Malus domestica cv. Pink Lady) orchard located in the Pelarco valley, Maule Region, Chile (35°25′20′′LS; 71°23′57′′LW; 189 m.a.s.l.). The study was conducted in a plot of 5.5 hectares using 20 satellite images (Landsat 7 ETM+) acquired on clear sky days during three growing seasons (2012/2013, 2013/2014 and 2014/2015). Specific sub-models to estimate Gi, leaf area index (LAI) and aerodynamic roughness length for momentum transfer (Zom) were calibrated for the apple orchard as an improvement to the standard METRIC model. The performance of the METRIC model was evaluated at the time of satellite overpass using measurements of Hi and LEi obtained from an eddy correlation system. In addition, estimated values of Rni, Gi and LAI were compared with ground-truth measurements from a four-way net radiometer, soil heat flux plates and plant canopy analyzer, respectively. Validation indicated that LAI, Zom and Gi were estimated using the calibrated functions with errors of +2%, +6% and +3% while those were computed using the standard functions with error of +59%, +83%, and +12%, respectively. In addition, METRIC using the calibrated functions estimated Hi and LEi with error of +5% and +16%, while using the original functions estimated Hi and LEi with error of +29% and +26%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: momentum roughness length; Perrier function; satellite images; leaf area index; fruit orchards momentum roughness length; Perrier function; satellite images; leaf area index; fruit orchards

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

de la Fuente-Sáiz, D.; Ortega-Farías, S.; Fonseca, D.; Ortega-Salazar, S.; Kilic, A.; Allen, R. Calibration of METRIC Model to Estimate Energy Balance over a Drip-Irrigated Apple Orchard. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 670.

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