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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(7), 641; doi:10.3390/rs9070641

A Satellite-Derived Climatological Analysis of Urban Heat Island over Shanghai during 2000–2013

1
Department of Land Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Remote Sensing and Information Systems, Hangzhou 310058, China
3
Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
4
Shanghai Climate Center, Shanghai Meteorological Bureau, Shanghai 200030, China
5
Institute of Applied Remote Sensing and Information Technology, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
6
Department of Agro-Meteorology and Geo-Informatics, Magbosi Land, Water and Environment Research Center (MLWERC), Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI), Tower Hill, Freetown PMB 1313, Sierra Leone
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Janet Nichol and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8790 KB, uploaded 22 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

The urban heat island is generally conducted based on ground observations of air temperature and remotely sensing of land surface temperature (LST). Satellite remotely sensed LST has the advantages of global coverage and consistent periodicity, which overcomes the weakness of ground observations related to sparse distributions and costs. For human related studies and urban climatology, canopy layer urban heat island (CUHI) based on air temperatures is extremely important. This study has employed remote sensing methodology to produce monthly CUHI climatology maps during the period 2000–2013, revealing the spatiotemporal characteristics of daytime and nighttime CUHI during this period of rapid urbanization in Shanghai. Using stepwise linear regression, daytime and nighttime air temperatures at the four overpass times of Terra/Aqua were estimated based on time series of Terra/Aqua-MODIS LST and other auxiliary variables including enhanced vegetation index, normalized difference water index, solar zenith angle and distance to coast. The validation results indicate that the models produced an accuracy of 1.6–2.6 °C RMSE for the four overpass times of Terra/Aqua. The models based on Terra LST showed higher accuracy than those based on Aqua LST, and nighttime air temperature estimation had higher accuracy than daytime. The seasonal analysis shows daytime CUHI is strongest in summer and weakest in winter, while nighttime CUHI is weakest in summer and strongest in autumn. The annual mean daytime CUHI during 2000–2013 is 1.0 and 2.2 °C for Terra and Aqua overpass, respectively. The annual mean nighttime CUHI is about 1.0 °C for both Terra and Aqua overpass. The resultant CUHI climatology maps provide a spatiotemporal quantification of CUHI with emphasis on temperature gradients. This study has provided information of relevance to urban planners and environmental managers for assessing and monitoring urban thermal environments which are constantly being altered by natural and anthropogenic influences. View Full-Text
Keywords: canopy layer urban heat island; air temperature; MODIS LST; Shanghai; weather stations canopy layer urban heat island; air temperature; MODIS LST; Shanghai; weather stations
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, W.; Li, J.; Guo, Q.; Mansaray, L.R.; Li, X.; Huang, J. A Satellite-Derived Climatological Analysis of Urban Heat Island over Shanghai during 2000–2013. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 641.

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