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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(6), 539; doi:10.3390/rs9060539

Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Multi-source High-resolution Imagery in the Zhangjiang Estuary, China

1
Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130061, China
4
Department of Earth Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
5
College of Computer and Information, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chandra Giri, Lars T. Waser and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [9359 KB, uploaded 30 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) is one of the most harmful invasive plants in China. Google Earth (GE), as a free software, hosts high-resolution imagery for many areas of the world. To explore the use of GE imagery for monitoring S. alterniflora invasion and developing an understanding of the invasion process of S. alterniflora in the Zhangjiang Estuary, the object-oriented method and visual interpretation were applied to GE, SPOT-5, and Gaofen-1 (GF-1) images. In addition, landscape metrics of S. alterniflora patches adjacent to mangrove forests were calculated and mangrove gaps were recorded by checking whether S. alterniflora exists. The results showed that from 2003–2015, the areal extent of S. alterniflora in the Zhangjiang Estuary increased from 57.94 ha to 116.11 ha, which was mainly converted from mudflats and moved seaward significantly. Analyses of the S. alterniflora expansion patterns in the six subzones indicated that the expansion trends varied with different environmental circumstances and human activities. Land reclamation, mangrove replantation, and mudflat aquaculture caused significant losses of S. alterniflora. The number of invaded gaps increased and S. alterniflora patches adjacent to mangrove forests became much larger and more aggregated during 2003–2015 (the class area increased from 12.13 ha to 49.76 ha and the aggregation index increased from 91.15 to 94.65). We thus concluded that S. alterniflora invasion in the Zhangjiang Estuary had seriously increased and that measures should be taken considering the characteristics shown in different subzones. This study provides an example of applying GE imagery to monitor invasive plants and illustrates that this approach can aid in the development of governmental policies employed to control S. alterniflora invasion. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing; Google Earth; invasive species; smooth cordgrass; object-oriented method; landscape metrics remote sensing; Google Earth; invasive species; smooth cordgrass; object-oriented method; landscape metrics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, M.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Man, W.; Jia, M.; Wang, Z.; Lu, C. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Multi-source High-resolution Imagery in the Zhangjiang Estuary, China. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 539.

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