Freeze/Thaw-Induced Deformation Monitoring and Assessment of the Slope in Permafrost Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and GNSS
AbstractMost previous studies of the Qinghai-Tibet engineering corridor (QTEC) have focused on the impacts of climate change on thaw-induced slope failures, whereas few have considered freeze-induced slope failures. Terrestrial laser scanning was used in combination with global navigation satellite systems to monitor three-dimensional surface changes between 2014 and 2015 on the slope of permafrost in the QTEC, which experienced two thawing periods and a freezing period. Soil temperature and moisture sensors were also deployed at 11 depths to reveal the hydrological–thermal dynamics of the active layer. We analyzed scanned surface changes in the slope based on comparisons of multi-temporal point cloud data to determine how the hydrological–thermal process affected active layer deformation during freeze–thaw cycles, thereby comprehensively quantifying the surface deformation. During the two thawing periods, the major structure of the slope exhibited subsidence trends, whereas the major structure of the slope had an uplift trend in the freezing period. The seasonal subsidence trend was caused by thaw settlement and the seasonal uplift trend was probably due to frost heaving. This occurred mainly because the active layer and the upper permafrost underwent a phase transition due to heat transfer. The ground movements occurred approximately in the soil temperature conduction direction between the top of the soil and the permafrost table. The elevation deformation range was mainly −0.20 m to 0.20 m. Surface volume increases with heaving after freezing could have compensated for the loss of thawing twice and still led to the upward swelling of the slope. Thus, this type of slope in permafrost is dominated by frost heave. Deformation characteristics of the slope will support enhanced decision making regarding the implementation of remote sensing and hydrological–thermal measurement technologies to monitor changes in the slopes in permafrost adjacent to engineering corridors, thereby improving the understanding and assessment of hazards. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Luo, L.; Ma, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhuang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, J.; Cao, X.; Liang, S.; Mu, Y. Freeze/Thaw-Induced Deformation Monitoring and Assessment of the Slope in Permafrost Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and GNSS. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 198.
Luo L, Ma W, Zhang Z, Zhuang Y, Zhang Y, Yang J, Cao X, Liang S, Mu Y. Freeze/Thaw-Induced Deformation Monitoring and Assessment of the Slope in Permafrost Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and GNSS. Remote Sensing. 2017; 9(3):198.Chicago/Turabian Style
Luo, Lihui; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Zhongqiong; Zhuang, Yanli; Zhang, Yaonan; Yang, Jinqiang; Cao, Xuecheng; Liang, Songtao; Mu, Yanhu. 2017. "Freeze/Thaw-Induced Deformation Monitoring and Assessment of the Slope in Permafrost Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and GNSS." Remote Sens. 9, no. 3: 198.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.