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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(2), 170; doi:10.3390/rs9020170

Analyses of Recent Sediment Surface Dynamic of a Namibian Kalahari Salt Pan Based on Multitemporal Landsat and Hyperspectral Hyperion Data

GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany
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Academic Editors: Magaly Koch, Richard Gloaguen and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract

This study combines spaceborne multitemporal and hyperspectral data to analyze the spatial distribution of surface evaporite minerals and changes in a semi-arid depositional environment associated with episodic flooding events, the Omongwa salt pan (Kalahari, Namibia). The dynamic of the surface crust is evaluated by a change-detection approach using the Iterative-reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) based on the Landsat archive imagery from 1984 to 2015. The results show that the salt pan is a highly dynamic and heterogeneous landform. A change gradient is observed from very stable pan border to a highly dynamic central pan. On the basis of hyperspectral EO-1 Hyperion images, the current distribution of surface evaporite minerals is characterized using Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). Assessment of field and image endmembers revealed that the pan surface can be categorized into three major crust types based on diagnostic absorption features and mineralogical ground truth data. The mineralogical crust types are related to different zones of surface change as well as pan morphology that influences brine flow during the pan inundation and desiccation cycles. These combined information are used to spatially map depositional environments where the more dynamic halite crust concentrates in lower areas although stable gypsum and calcite/sepiolite crusts appear in higher elevated areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt pan; playa; hyperspectral; multitemporal; change detection; evaporite minerals salt pan; playa; hyperspectral; multitemporal; change detection; evaporite minerals
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Milewski, R.; Chabrillat, S.; Behling, R. Analyses of Recent Sediment Surface Dynamic of a Namibian Kalahari Salt Pan Based on Multitemporal Landsat and Hyperspectral Hyperion Data. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 170.

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