Airport Detection Using End-to-End Convolutional Neural Network with Hard Example Mining†
AbstractDeep convolutional neural network (CNN) achieves outstanding performance in the field of target detection. As one of the most typical targets in remote sensing images (RSIs), airport has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, the essential challenge for using deep CNN to detect airport is the great imbalance between the number of airports and background examples in large-scale RSIs, which may lead to over-fitting. In this paper, we develop a hard example mining and weight-balanced strategy to construct a novel end-to-end convolutional neural network for airport detection. The initial motivation of the proposed method is that backgrounds contain an overwhelming number of easy examples and a few hard examples. Therefore, we design a hard example mining layer to automatically select hard examples by their losses, and implement a new weight-balanced loss function to optimize CNN. Meanwhile, the cascade design of proposal extraction and object detection in our network releases the constraint on input image size and reduces spurious false positives. Compared with geometric characteristics and low-level manually designed features, the hard example mining based network could extract high-level features, which is more robust for airport detection in complex environment. The proposed method is validated on a multi-scale dataset with complex background collected from Google Earth. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method is robust, and superior to the state-of-the-art airport detection models. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Cai, B.; Jiang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, D.; Yao, Y. Airport Detection Using End-to-End Convolutional Neural Network with Hard Example Mining. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1198.
Cai B, Jiang Z, Zhang H, Zhao D, Yao Y. Airport Detection Using End-to-End Convolutional Neural Network with Hard Example Mining. Remote Sensing. 2017; 9(11):1198.Chicago/Turabian Style
Cai, Bowen; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Haopeng; Zhao, Danpei; Yao, Yuan. 2017. "Airport Detection Using End-to-End Convolutional Neural Network with Hard Example Mining." Remote Sens. 9, no. 11: 1198.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.