Measurements of Surface-Layer Turbulence in a Wide Norwegian Fjord Using Synchronized Long-Range Doppler Wind Lidars
Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and Materials Science, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway
School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavík University, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland
Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
Christian Michelsen Research AS, 5072 Bergen, Norway
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in 7th European and African Conference on Wind Engineering (EACWE 2017)
Current address: University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
Three synchronized pulsed Doppler wind lidars were deployed from May 2016 to June 2016 on the shores of a wide Norwegian fjord called Bjørnafjord to study the wind characteristics at the proposed location of a planned bridge. The purpose was to investigate the potential of using lidars to gather information on turbulence characteristics in the middle of a wide fjord. The study includes the analysis of the single-point and two-point statistics of wind turbulence, which are of major interest to estimate dynamic wind loads on structures. The horizontal wind components were measured by the intersecting scanning beams, along a line located 25
above the sea surface, at scanning distances up to 4.6
. For a mean wind velocity above 8
, the recorded turbulence intensity was below 0.06 on average. Even though the along-beam spatial averaging leads to an underestimated turbulence intensity, such a value indicates a roughness length much lower than provided in the European standard EN 1991-1-4:2005. The normalized spectrum of the along-wind component was compared to the one provided by the Norwegian Petroleum Industry Standard and the Norwegian Handbook for bridge design N400. A good overall agreement was observed for wave-numbers below
. The along-beam spatial averaging in the adopted set-up prevented a more detailed comparison at larger wave-numbers, which challenges the study of wind turbulence at scanning distances of several kilometres. The results presented illustrate the need to complement lidar data with point-measurement to reduce the uncertainties linked to the atmospheric stability and the spatial averaging of the lidar probe volume. The measured lateral coherence was associated with a decay coefficient larger than expected for the along-wind component, with a value around 21 for a mean wind velocity bounded between 10
, which may be related to a stable atmospheric stratification.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style
Cheynet, E.; Jakobsen, J.B.; Snæbjörnsson, J.; Mann, J.; Courtney, M.; Lea, G.; Svardal, B. Measurements of Surface-Layer Turbulence in a Wide Norwegian Fjord Using Synchronized Long-Range Doppler Wind Lidars. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 977.
Cheynet E, Jakobsen JB, Snæbjörnsson J, Mann J, Courtney M, Lea G, Svardal B. Measurements of Surface-Layer Turbulence in a Wide Norwegian Fjord Using Synchronized Long-Range Doppler Wind Lidars. Remote Sensing. 2017; 9(10):977.
Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna B.; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas; Mann, Jakob; Courtney, Michael; Lea, Guillaume; Svardal, Benny. 2017. "Measurements of Surface-Layer Turbulence in a Wide Norwegian Fjord Using Synchronized Long-Range Doppler Wind Lidars." Remote Sens. 9, no. 10: 977.
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