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Addendum published on 23 December 2017, see Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 20.

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(10), 1076; doi:10.3390/rs9101076

Using Satellite Data for the Characterization of Local Animal Reservoir Populations of Hantaan Virus on the Weihe Plain, China

1
Shaanxi Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Xi’an 710054, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
3
College of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
4
Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Department of Earth System Science, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
5
Hu County Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Xi’an 710302, China
6
College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 225300, China
7
Xi’an Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Xi’an 710054, China
8
Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of State Forestry Administration, National Bird Banding Center of China, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
9
Institute of Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force (PAP), Tianjin 300162, China
10
Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Applications to Human Health)
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Abstract

Striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) are the main host for the Hantaan virus (HTNV), the cause of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in central China. It has been shown that host population density is associated with pathogen dynamics and disease risk. Thus, a higher population density of A. agrarius in an area might indicate a higher risk for an HFRS outbreak. Here, we surveyed the A. agrarius population density between 2005 and 2012 on the Weihe Plain, Shaanxi Province, China, and used this monitoring data to examine the relationships between the dynamics of A. agrarius populations and environmental conditions of crop-land, represented by remote sensing based indicators. These included the normalized difference vegetation index, leaf area index, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation, net photosynthesis (PsnNet), gross primary productivity, and land surface temperature. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to detect the possible causal relationship between PsnNet, A. agrarius population density and HFRS risk. The results showed that A. agrarius was the most frequently captured species with a capture rate of 0.9 individuals per hundred trap-nights, during 96 months of trapping in the study area. The risk of HFRS was highly associated with the abundance of A. agrarius, with a 1–5-month lag. The breeding season of A. agrarius was also found to coincide with agricultural activity and seasons with high PsnNet. The SEM indicated that PsnNet had an indirect positive effect on HFRS incidence via rodents. In conclusion, the remote sensing-based environmental indicator, PsnNet, was highly correlated with HTNV reservoir population dynamics with a 3-month lag (r = 0.46, p < 0.01), and may serve as a predictor of potential HFRS outbreaks. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hantaan virus (HTNV); remote sensing; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS); net photosynthesis (PsnNet); rodent population dynamics Hantaan virus (HTNV); remote sensing; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS); net photosynthesis (PsnNet); rodent population dynamics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yu, P.; Li, Y.; Xu, B.; Wei, J.; Li, S.; Dong, J.; Qu, J.; Xu, J.; Huang, Z.Y.; Ma, C.; Yang, J.; Zhang, G.; Chen, B.; Huang, S.; Shi, C.; Gao, H.; Liu, F.; Tian, H.; Stenseth, N.C.; Xu, B.; Wang, J. Using Satellite Data for the Characterization of Local Animal Reservoir Populations of Hantaan Virus on the Weihe Plain, China. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1076.

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