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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(10), 1038; doi:10.3390/rs9101038

Impact and Suggestion of Column-to-Surface Vertical Correction Scheme on the Relationship between Satellite AOD and Ground-Level PM2.5 in China

1,2,†
,
1,†
,
1,* , 1,3,* , 1
and
4
1
State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center for Geospatial Technology, Wuhan 430079, China
3
College of Information Science and Engineering, Wuchang Shouyi University, Wuhan 430064, China
4
School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China
These authors contribute equally to this paper.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Atmosphere Remote Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2747 KB, uploaded 12 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

As China is suffering from severe fine particle pollution from dense industrialization and urbanization, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been widely used for estimating particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). However, the correlation between satellite AOD and ground-level PM2.5 could be influenced by aerosol vertical distribution, as satellite AOD represents the entire column, rather than just ground-level concentration. Here, a new column-to-surface vertical correction scheme is proposed to improve separation of the near-surface and elevated aerosol layers, based on the ratio of the integrated extinction coefficient within 200–500 m above ground level (AGL), using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP)) aerosol profile products. There are distinct differences in climate, meteorology, terrain, and aerosol transmission throughout China, so comparisons between vertical correction via CALIOP ratio and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) were conducted in different regions from 2014 to 2015, combined with the original Pearson coefficient between satellite AOD and ground-level PM2.5 for reference. Furthermore, the best vertical correction scheme was suggested for different regions to achieve optimal correlation with PM2.5, based on the analysis and discussion of regional and seasonal characteristics of aerosol vertical distribution. According to our results and discussions, vertical correction via PBLH is recommended in northwestern China, where the PBLH varies dramatically, stretching or compressing the surface aerosol layer; vertical correction via the CALIOP ratio is recommended in northeastern China, southwestern China, Central China (excluding summer), North China Plain (excluding Beijing), and the spring in the southeast coast, areas that are susceptible to exogenous aerosols and exhibit the elevated aerosol layer; and original AOD without vertical correction is recommended in Beijing and the southeast coast (excluding spring), where the elevated aerosol layer rarely occurs and a large proportion of aerosol is aggregated in near-surface. Moreover, validation experiments in 2016 agreed well with our discussions and conclusions drawn from the experiments of the first two years. Furthermore, suggested vertical correction scheme was applied into linear mixed effect (LME) model, and high cross validation (CV) R2 (~85%) and relatively low root mean square errors (RMSE, ~20 μg/m3) were achieved, which demonstrated that the PM2.5 estimation agreed well with the measurements. When compared to the original situation, CV R2 values and RMSE after vertical correction both presented improvement to a certain extent, proving that the suggested vertical correction schemes could further improve the estimation accuracy of PM2.5 based on sophisticated model in China. Estimating PM2.5 with better accuracy could contribute to a more precise research of ecology and epidemiology, and provide a reliable reference for environmental policy making by governments. View Full-Text
Keywords: satellite-derived AOD; PM2.5; pearson coefficient; vertical correction; CALIOP ratio; PBLH; LME satellite-derived AOD; PM2.5; pearson coefficient; vertical correction; CALIOP ratio; PBLH; LME
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Gong, W.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, T.; Zhu, Z.; Ji, Y.; Xiang, H. Impact and Suggestion of Column-to-Surface Vertical Correction Scheme on the Relationship between Satellite AOD and Ground-Level PM2.5 in China. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1038.

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